Flashcards in Unit 3.5 Test Deck (17):
What are the 5 Pillars of Islam?
1. "No go but God and Muhammad messenger of god", believed in Abraham, Moses and Jesus.
2. Daily prayer
3. Charity/Alms to the poor
4. Fasting during Ramadan
5. Pilgrimage to Mecca called Hajj
What was Muhammad's life like?
Born in 570 CE; grew into a successful merchant; Angel Gabriel came to him and was told to start and spread Islam; Mecca didn't like Muhammad spreading word of a new religion (afraid pilgrims would be scared away) so kicked him and all of his followers out; Then he spreads word of God in Medina; rules as king there; he captures Mecca in 630 AD
What were the values in society for Islam?
Sharia Law- laws from Quran, talked about morals, family life, business, government and social, also covers legal standings; believed in equality between men and woman- allowed equality in heaven, didn't allow killing of daughters; guarantees to women- rights to choose marriages, inheritance, educated, divorce
Who was Clovis?
He was a Frankish King who converted to Christianity because of his wife; he broke the commandment "Thou Shalt not Kill" a lot; He killed his family members so nobody could challenge his claims to his land
Who was Charles Martel?
He is a general who leads the Franks against Muslims in 732; nicknamed "the Hammer"
Who is Charlemagne?
He is Charles Martel's grandson; known as the father of Europe; He ruled for 3 decades; he had 20 children
What was the Plague that spread through Europe?
Called the Black Death; was in Sicily in 1347; 1/3 to 2/3 of all Europeans died; People thought the causes were- witches, sinners or Jews but it was really caused by fleas on rats; this weakened the church because people started to wonder if god was real and if so why would he do such a thing; many popes fought for control of church, up to 3
What was the 100 year war?
1337- 1453; actually 116 years; English King Edward the 3rd tries to claim parts of France; long bows and cannons help English win several battles; Joan of Arc was a 17 year old peasant girl, God told her to fight for France, French king gives her command out of desperation, rallies French troops; She got captured by English- put her on trial for witch craft and burnt her- became martyr; FRANCE WINS;
What were the effects of the 100 Year War?
King's power grow; nationalism is on the rise; English decide to give up on France and start to colonize other places; Knights and Castle smatter less because the need large armies to do anything with new technology; trade grows; new ideas lead to the age of Renaissance, Reformation and Exploration
Explain knights in Europe.
Knights matter much less after the 100 year War; they were violent
Explain the 3 Field System in Europe.
Used after Crusade Period; was easier to grow crops; would split field into 3 parts and would rotate crops every year, one spot wouldn't be used
Explain what the fighting for power vs kings was in the Middle Ages.
Pope Gregory VII vs Henry IV; Changes made by pope- priest can't marry, no selling church offices, church elects its own officials, names himself new Emperor of Rome; Henry dislikes that Gregory is taking away all of his power- thinks he is the ruler; 1076 Gregory excommunicates Henry>Henry's people revolt>1077 Henry seeks forgiveness; Pope gives it because he has to> Henry marched on Rome and banished Pope; Concordat of Worms- treaty allowing church to set officials and emperor granted them fees
Explain the power of the church.
Claimed Papal supremacy over all kings; maintained power by: everyone is a sinner> only way to not go to tell is sacraments> priests or church only ones who can perform sacraments>need church to avoid hell>everyone loves church; excommunication to force people into their beliefs
What were the Crusades?
FIRST CRUSADE- Christians capture Jerusalem in 1099; kill of all Muslims and Jews in city to celebrate; 1187 Saladin retakes Jerusalem; allows pilgrimages from Christians 2ND AND 3RD- less concerned about holy land and more about getting loot and killing Muslims 4TH CRUSADE- Europeans on their way to Jerusalem run of money on the way there; stop in Constantinople; instead of going to holy land loot and kill Christians in Byzantium; Christians overthrown in holy land and Muslims celebrate with slaughter of a bunch of Christians
What were the impacts of the Crusades?
Muslims unite; trade expands; Byzantium drove further away from west; Monarch power grows; World view increases
Explain Monks and Nuns.
Dedicated to church; obedience, poverty, chastity; gave protection to weak- shelter for travelers, schools, kept knowledge alive with writing books; missionaries