World Geography Chapter 20 Test Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in World Geography Chapter 20 Test Deck (59):
1

What is subsistence Farming?

Grew enough food for themselves and their families but not enough to sell

2

What is anesthetics?

Drug that prevents pain during surgery

3

What is Enclosure?

Taking over and consolidating peasant lands

4

What ideas improved farming?

Land used more efficiently, fertilizer used to regrow soil, soil types mixed to produce more crops, crop rotation introduced

5

How did improving farming methods make things better/easier?

Increased population, increased profits, better hygiene

6

How did improving farming methods fuel the IR?

Enclosure was introduced which cased many peasants to lose their land so people started to move to cities to find work

7

What did Jethro Tull invent?

Invented seed drill to plant crops in rows

8

How did Jethro tull's invention make farming easier?

Less work

9

Why was there a population increase during IR?

Increase in food, when people eat better they stay healthier, better hygiene and sanitation limited disease

10

What did James Watt invent/improve?

Steam engines

11

Why was James watt invention significant?

Becomes key power source of IR

12

What did improvement in producing iron lead to?

Allows iron to be produced faster and cheaper used for parts in steam engines, 1st Iron Bridge produced in 1779- England's still in use today

13

What is enterprise?

Business ventures

14

What is capital?

Money

15

What is turnpike?

Toll Roads

16

What is entrepreneur?

Those who assumed the financial risk/reward of starting a new business

17

What advantages did they have in leading the IR?

Geography- natural ports and navigable rivers, access to sea, abundant natural resources, supportive gov

18

In what Industry did IR 1st take hold?

Textile

19

What was the putting out system?

Raw cotton distributed to peasants who spun it into thread in their own homes, then weave thread into cotton

20

Why did the putting out system end?

Companies began making machines to help with increase in cotton production, workers soon come work were machines were instead of working at home

21

What was the spinning jenny?

Spun many threads at the same time

22

What was the flying shuttle?

Enabled weavers to work faster

23

How did the spinning jenny and the flying shuttle advance the IR?

Inventions helped speed up cloth production

24

What was Eli Whitney's invention?

Cotton gin

25

What did Eli Whitney's invention do?

Separated seeds from raw cotton

26

How did Eli Whitney's invention change things?

Allowed cotton production to skyrocket

27

Advantages to railroads.

Allowed people and goods to travel quickly in places were there was no water

28

Advantages to canal

Factories needed fast and cheap way of importing coal and raw materials, cut price of coal in half

29

What was the 1st Rail Line?

England: Liverpool to Manchester

30

What is urbanization?

Movement of people to cities

31

What is tenements

Multistory apt. building

32

What was the Industrial Middle Class?

Merchants who invested in factories

33

What was the Industrial Working Class?

Poor folks

34

Similarities between the Industrial Middle Class and the Industrial Working Class.

Mostly everyone was poor once, lived with family

35

Differences between IMC and IWC.

IMC- developed new technologies, lived in good conditions, not much sympathy for poor IWC- lived in bad conditions, got many diseases

36

Describe the harsh conditions in factories and mines.

Schedules were very rigid, long work- 12-16 hours, 6-7 days a week, breaks only with permission, no safety, worked in darkness, coal dust destroys lungs, collapsing tunnels, explosions, flooding

37

What were children forced to do?

Change spool of thread, repair broken pieces in textiles, opening and closing air vents in mines, haul coal carts

38

Why were children desirable for work?

Fit into tight places and small so could reach where others couldn't

39

What were the factory acts, who were they supposed to help and were they effective

Reform act-reduced child's work day to 12 hours; children; weren't enforced

40

Who were the Luddites and what type of group were they?

Labor org-resented being replaced by machines and rioted; Union

41

What did the Luddites want?

Change of work environment/comfort in religion

42

Who founded Methodism?

John Wesley

43

What was Methodism teachings?

Stressed personal sense of faith, improve yourself by adopting moral and sober ways

44

Which class was Methodism mainly taught?

Industrial Working Class

45

What were the blessing of the IR?

New factories opened-gave more people jobs, Wages rose, railroads and steamships allowed for increase travel, rise in pop

46

What were the curses of the IR?

Peasant farmers kicked off land, workers exploited, terrible working conditions, long hours, child labor

47

What is utilitarianism?

Laws should be judged by whether they bring more pleasure than pain, "The greatest happiness for the greater number"

48

What is socialism?

People as a whole, not private individuals, own means of production?

49

What is communism?

Classless society where all means of production was owned by the community

50

Who was Thomas Malthus and what did he believe?

British economist, decided poverty was unavoidable-population increasing faster than food supply

51

What is Laissez-Faire?

Government has "Hands off" approach

52

What did David Ricardo write and what did it say?

Iron Laws of Wages, Wages increases would not help poor families because that would just encourage them to have more kids

53

What did Jeremy Bentham believe?

Advocated utilitarianism- supported individual freedom, " The greatest happiness for the greater number"

54

What were Karl Marx and Fredric Engels writings beliefs and thoughts on capitalism?

The Communist Manifest. said society was a battle between the haves and have nots, hated capitalism-said created prosperity for a few but poverty for many

55

What is Proletariat?

Have Nots- Industrial Working Class

56

What is Bourgeoisie?

Haves- Industrial Middle Class

57

Who did Mar think would win?

Proletariat

58

Britain essay question

Geography-natural ports(didn't need to build anything), navigable rivers-increased trade; Access to sea- easy to establish travel and communication network, transporting goods was cheap; Abundant Natural resources-plentiful coal deposits , high concentration of iron; Supportive gov- strong navy, not tolls on traveling

59

IMC and IWC essay question

IMC- merchants who invested in factories, investor artisans who developed new tech, lived in well furnished homes, at well and had fancy clothes, woman stayed home to raise children, not much sympathy for poor; IWC- Lived in dirty smelly slums, whole families in tiny tenements, no running water, no sewage/sanitation, contaminated drinking water caused spread of diseases; Both- Lived with families, most were once poor-"rags to riches" success stories