Flashcards in World Geography Chapter 20 Test Deck (59):
What is subsistence Farming?
Grew enough food for themselves and their families but not enough to sell
What is anesthetics?
Drug that prevents pain during surgery
What is Enclosure?
Taking over and consolidating peasant lands
What ideas improved farming?
Land used more efficiently, fertilizer used to regrow soil, soil types mixed to produce more crops, crop rotation introduced
How did improving farming methods make things better/easier?
Increased population, increased profits, better hygiene
How did improving farming methods fuel the IR?
Enclosure was introduced which cased many peasants to lose their land so people started to move to cities to find work
What did Jethro Tull invent?
Invented seed drill to plant crops in rows
How did Jethro tull's invention make farming easier?
Why was there a population increase during IR?
Increase in food, when people eat better they stay healthier, better hygiene and sanitation limited disease
What did James Watt invent/improve?
Why was James watt invention significant?
Becomes key power source of IR
What did improvement in producing iron lead to?
Allows iron to be produced faster and cheaper used for parts in steam engines, 1st Iron Bridge produced in 1779- England's still in use today
What is enterprise?
What is capital?
What is turnpike?
What is entrepreneur?
Those who assumed the financial risk/reward of starting a new business
What advantages did they have in leading the IR?
Geography- natural ports and navigable rivers, access to sea, abundant natural resources, supportive gov
In what Industry did IR 1st take hold?
What was the putting out system?
Raw cotton distributed to peasants who spun it into thread in their own homes, then weave thread into cotton
Why did the putting out system end?
Companies began making machines to help with increase in cotton production, workers soon come work were machines were instead of working at home
What was the spinning jenny?
Spun many threads at the same time
What was the flying shuttle?
Enabled weavers to work faster
How did the spinning jenny and the flying shuttle advance the IR?
Inventions helped speed up cloth production
What was Eli Whitney's invention?
What did Eli Whitney's invention do?
Separated seeds from raw cotton
How did Eli Whitney's invention change things?
Allowed cotton production to skyrocket
Advantages to railroads.
Allowed people and goods to travel quickly in places were there was no water
Advantages to canal
Factories needed fast and cheap way of importing coal and raw materials, cut price of coal in half
What was the 1st Rail Line?
England: Liverpool to Manchester
What is urbanization?
Movement of people to cities
What is tenements
Multistory apt. building
What was the Industrial Middle Class?
Merchants who invested in factories
What was the Industrial Working Class?
Similarities between the Industrial Middle Class and the Industrial Working Class.
Mostly everyone was poor once, lived with family
Differences between IMC and IWC.
IMC- developed new technologies, lived in good conditions, not much sympathy for poor IWC- lived in bad conditions, got many diseases
Describe the harsh conditions in factories and mines.
Schedules were very rigid, long work- 12-16 hours, 6-7 days a week, breaks only with permission, no safety, worked in darkness, coal dust destroys lungs, collapsing tunnels, explosions, flooding
What were children forced to do?
Change spool of thread, repair broken pieces in textiles, opening and closing air vents in mines, haul coal carts
Why were children desirable for work?
Fit into tight places and small so could reach where others couldn't
What were the factory acts, who were they supposed to help and were they effective
Reform act-reduced child's work day to 12 hours; children; weren't enforced
Who were the Luddites and what type of group were they?
Labor org-resented being replaced by machines and rioted; Union
What did the Luddites want?
Change of work environment/comfort in religion
Who founded Methodism?
What was Methodism teachings?
Stressed personal sense of faith, improve yourself by adopting moral and sober ways
Which class was Methodism mainly taught?
Industrial Working Class
What were the blessing of the IR?
New factories opened-gave more people jobs, Wages rose, railroads and steamships allowed for increase travel, rise in pop
What were the curses of the IR?
Peasant farmers kicked off land, workers exploited, terrible working conditions, long hours, child labor
What is utilitarianism?
Laws should be judged by whether they bring more pleasure than pain, "The greatest happiness for the greater number"
What is socialism?
People as a whole, not private individuals, own means of production?
What is communism?
Classless society where all means of production was owned by the community
Who was Thomas Malthus and what did he believe?
British economist, decided poverty was unavoidable-population increasing faster than food supply
What is Laissez-Faire?
Government has "Hands off" approach
What did David Ricardo write and what did it say?
Iron Laws of Wages, Wages increases would not help poor families because that would just encourage them to have more kids
What did Jeremy Bentham believe?
Advocated utilitarianism- supported individual freedom, " The greatest happiness for the greater number"
What were Karl Marx and Fredric Engels writings beliefs and thoughts on capitalism?
The Communist Manifest. said society was a battle between the haves and have nots, hated capitalism-said created prosperity for a few but poverty for many
What is Proletariat?
Have Nots- Industrial Working Class
What is Bourgeoisie?
Haves- Industrial Middle Class
Who did Mar think would win?
Britain essay question
Geography-natural ports(didn't need to build anything), navigable rivers-increased trade; Access to sea- easy to establish travel and communication network, transporting goods was cheap; Abundant Natural resources-plentiful coal deposits , high concentration of iron; Supportive gov- strong navy, not tolls on traveling