Flashcards in World History Final 3 Deck (154):
Who conquered Mesopotamia?
What would peasants have to do in Mesopotamia?
Labor, pay taxes, join the army
What rivers were near Mesopotamia?
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
How did the rivers behave in Mesopotamia?
They were unpredictable and violent
How did Mesopotamia's geography influence the people and the culture?
They were able to trade; farm; experience cultural diffusion; tried to expand; had invaders
What was Mesopotamia's writing style?
What was Mesopotamia's epic story and what was it about?
Epic of Gilgamesh; conflict between country and city; one of the oldest known works of literature
Who was Hammurabi?
Ruled the new kingdom of Babylon; famous for his law code
What was Hammurabi's Code?
Established everything from like the wages of ox drivers to the fact that the punishment for taking an eye should be having an eye taken; in the code portrayed himself as two people- shepherd and father; we start to see the authority for protection of social order shifting to men, not gods, which is important, but later switches back
Who are the Assyrian's and what is there story?
Invaders of Mesopotamia; started to expand but it was hard to unify the multi-ethnic people; they had a really good army; generals were chosen based on skill- not who there fathers were; they extended there empire to where administration was impossible; they be lived that when they lost a battle the apocalypse would come, so when Nineveh was conquered and they lost a battle, the empire came to an end
Who conquered Egypt?
What was the best culture to be a woman in?
Did the Egyptian culture believe in an afterlife?
Where were the Egyptians conquered?
In the Delta Area of the river by the Hyksos
What happened when the Hyksos came to take over the Egyptians?
They came over on horse drawn carriages;They realized the Egyptian's had a cool way of live, so they adapted to there life style. Once Egypt came up with better technology and weapons they kicked out the Hyksos and got their land back 100 years later
What did peasants have to do in Egypt?
Build things for the Pharaoh
What river was near Egypt?
How did the river behave in Egypt?
What were the Gods in Egypt?
Amon-Re- sun god that only pharaoh could talk to; Isis-taught woman how to do essential things to society; Osiris- god of the Underworld and the Nile
How did Egypt's geography influence the people and the culture?
Deserts surrounding them caused them to not trade or change for a long period of time
What writing style did Egypt use?
Hieroglyphics; ideogram; demotic
What were Egypt's military conquests?
Egypt conquered Nubia to the South
What were Egypt's religious views?
Enteral life after death; passed over a lake of fire upon death; weighed heart against "truth feather"; if passed test they would be permitted into the after life; Book of the Dead was a how to guide
What happened in Egypt's Old Kingdom?
Strong government; Pharaohs ruled over a unified state; Pyramids; belief in an afterlife led to preservation of the dead
What happened in Egypt's Middle Kingdom?
Power struggles; crop failure; pyramid cost led to downfall of old; Military conquests; Egypt conquered by Hyksos; gained land back after 100 years
What happened in Egypt's New Kingdom?
Powerful military state; conquered to the Euphrates; Extremely strong Pharaohs; Expanded with Rames II to Syria; first peace treaty signed with the Hittites
Explain the Pharaohs throughout Egypt.
Pharaohs ruled in the Old Kingdom; Had very strong Pharaohs in the New Kingdom; Pharaoh at the top of the social hierarchy; only Pharaoh could talk to Amon-Re; Peasants had to build things for the Pharaohs
Who conquered Indus?
What are the two capitals of Indus?
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
What did the Ramayana teach?
What river was in Indus?
What was the river behavior in Indus?
Flooded twice a year; predictable
What were the Gods of Indus?
How did geography influence the people and culture of Indus?
traded and experience cultural diffusion
What happened when the Aryans took over Indus?
Come to India and intermarried with the local population; they were very warlike; nomads who settled down
What were the Aryan's religious beliefs?
Gods were representations of nature; Chiefs God was Indra of War; Over time Brahman becomes single force all other Gods are aspects of; mystics
What was the Aryan story Mahabharata about?
warfare and religion; 100,000 verses; 5 brothers lose and regain kingdom; importance of immortality of soul and performing ones duty; spoke and memorized stories
What was the Aryan story Ramayana about?
Behavior; Rama's wife kidnapped by the demon king and he must now safe her; Rama represents positive virtue; Sita(his wife) is a good woman who is loyal and obedient; spoke and memorized stories
Which culture implemented the feudal system?
What culture used the Mandate of Heaven?
Was the Shang Dynasty replaced by the Zhou?
Explain the Mandate of Heaven.
said that heaven gets to decide who rules; made it easy to overthrow rulers; there would be a ruler than people would start to get angry toward the ruler; the ruler would be overthrown and a new ruler would come in; the cycle keeps going
What was the river near China?
Yellow River; Huang River; river of sorrows; Chang River
How did the river behave in China?
Unpredictable and violent
Who were the Gods in China?
How did geography influence the people and culture in China?
Tough terrain caused for not much trade and few invaders; stayed the same for a long period of time
What was the writing style in China?
Explain China's Feudal system?
Rewards supporters of the dynasties with land; lords had people work the land and grow for them; lords get free crops and good while peasants get protection and stability
What were some problems with China's Feudal System?
Lords can get a great deal of power and cant start to rule in place of Emperor
Explain the Shang Dynasty in China.
First dynasty we know is real; peasant life not very good; farming; repairs; front line fighting
How did the Zhou Dynasty overtake the Shang Dynasty?
Mandate of Heaven; Zhou we meant to be better rulers so heaven made it so
What age was the Agricultural revolution and what happened during that time?
Neolithic Age; people learned how to farm; domesticated animals; population booms; less egalitarian; warfare begins to increase as competition for scarce resources grows; very little social class changes; specialization; new technology; calendars to know when to plant; making new tools and clothes
Why was the Agricultural revolution good?
Surplus allowed for more free time; free time allowed for specialization; specialization created new things to work on; this led to science; art; math; government; literature; and things that isn't just feeding yourself; SPECIALIZATION; SURPLUS; TECHNOLOGY; CIVILIZATIONS
Why was the Agricultural Revolution bad?
slavery; sexism; disease; health problems
What is Jared Diamond's theory about why some civilizations thrive and some don't'?
According to Jared Diamond; what are the three major elements that separate the world's "haves" from "have nots"?
Guns; germs; steel
Explain livestock and domestication according to Jared Diamond.
Livestock plays a significant role in a civilizations' ability to become rich and powerful; helped people by- having a dependable meat supply, milk, skin and hair used for clothes and warmth, eat remains of harvest, used to help plow
What animals can be domesticated and where can they be found?
Goats and sheep- Middle East; horse or ox; pig-New Guinea; donkeys; cattle; Asia, North Africa, and Europe had best animals
What age were Hunter and Gatherers and what happened during this time?
Old stone Age; Paleolithic Age; 20-30 people; first tools show up made of bone or wood; likely first signs of language appear; clothing, fires and caves used to protect from cold
What were peasants life's like?
Life for peasants in all civilizations were not good; peasants had to the jobs others wouldn't do; in Mesopotamia, peasants had to do labor, farm and join the army; In Egypt, peasants had to build things for the Pharaoh; farm
Who fought the Greeks at Thermopylae like his father?
Xerxes the Great
Which Spartan king fought in the battle of Thermopylae?
Who was the most powerful Greek God?
Did Alexander have a horse no one else could tame?
Did Ionia defeat the Persians with the help of the Athenians?
How was Sparta able to focus so much on military instead of food and how might this have led to there downfall?
Owned slaves called Helots that focused on the labors so the rest of Sparta could focus on military training; Helots greatly outnumbers Spartans; treated poorly; Helots could've tried to escape or rebel against Sparta and this could have led to the downfall because they now have no one to do the important labors they need to stay alive
Government-started out as a monarchy, people mad at kings, change to a democracy; Social Structure- land owning freemen could vote, slaves treated more kind, woman stayed home, boys went to school when fathers could afford it
Explain Athens culture.
Valued arts, philosophy, rhetoric, writing, math, music, military; individual achievement; participation in government; entertainment very important
Government-2 kings in charge of all major decisions, council of Elders to help kings; Life for men- everything is aimed at military strength, only strong survive; Life for woman- ran home; expected to be fit to produce strong sons, obeyed fathers/husbands
Explain Sparta's culture.
looked down on the individual; no art or literature; strength only things that matter; enjoyed isolation; "Spartans are so willing to die for their city because they have nothing to live for"
What were Sparta's Helots?
Slaves; needed people to grow food; Helots greatly outnumbered Sparta; Brutal treatment kept Helots in check
What happened before the Battle of Marathon?
Ionian city states fall under Persian rule; rebelled against Persians and asked for help from Greece; Athens responds with a navy but Ionia still falls
What happens at the Battle of Marathon?
Darius sends force to Athens to punish them for Ionian Revolt; Athens defeats Persians at Marathon; Persians realize they need more help
What happens at the Battle of Thermopylae?
Darius' son Xerxes is now ruler of Persia and sends force to Athens; However Athens has had time to prepare and get other allies; Leonidas a Spartan King holds of Persians but fall and dies; when Persians reach Athens they had already left; Persians burnt city; Athens counterattacks in ocean and takes out Persian navy
How did Athens reach a Golden Age?
Athens forms an empire across Greece with the Dalian League; charged other members taxes if they tried to back out Athens threatened violence; gains lots of power; freedom in Athens but oppression every where else
Explain the Peloponnesian League.
Sparta creates this league to fight Athens
Explain the Peloponnesian War.
Geography makes the war hard for naval power in Athens; Sparta allies with Persia; Eventually reaches Athens; Athens brings all citizens into city; plaque breaks out and kills Pericles; after war no more big powers in traditional Greece
What was the purpose of Greek Myths?
To teach things or to tell stories of how things came about
Explain Alexander the Great.
After his dad is assassinated he steps into power; Had obsession with killing Darius III; Never lost a battle; turned troops around when he got to India; dies early; falls ill with a fever; when he was dying he was asked who should rule and he said the strongest; once dead empire split by 3 generals- one in Greece Persia and Egypt; spread Greek culture and language across a huge area; founded many cities mostly named after himself; taught soldiers and citizens to assimilate with locals
What civilization was the dowry used in?
Did India have the cast system?
Explain India's Maurya Dynasty.
strong government; Chandragupta- starts in Ganges Valley and takes northern India, son and grandson take southern India; maintained order through a well organized harsh government; Asoka- Chandragupta's grandson, was in a battle and killed 100k men, after battle horrified and converted to Buddhism; after Asoka died the empire split
Explain India's Gupta Dynasty.
Weak government; Golden Age; Advances in: math, 0, decimal, medical advances, literature; Declines: weak rulers, civil war, foreign invaders
Explain India's family structure.
Patriarchal; whole family in one home; training children for expectations; parents arrange marriage; if woman are devoted to husband dharma increases; castes
Shi Huangdi implemented which punished system in China?
Did the Qin Dynasty build the Great Wall?
Explain the Qin Dynasty in China.
Strong government; abolishes feudalism; some coins and language; Constructing Great Wall; Walls of separate China
Who was Shi Huangdi?
Unifies China in the Qin Dynasty; implements Legalism
What is Legalism?
harsh rule; men are evil and we must acquire good; torture and kill people that went against them; strength most powerful virtue of rules; burning of books; "realist" ideas
Explain the Han Dynasty in China.
Weak government; strengthens China; gets ride of legalism; Emperor Wudi- continues to improve roads and canals; better officials in government; Fall- local government becomes stronger and unruly; invaders
What are the main Gods of Hinduism?
Brahman- the creator Vishnu- the preserver; Shiva- the destroyer
Where was Hinduism mainly located?
What does Hinduism belief in that Buddhism doesn't?
What were Hinduism's beliefs?
Moksha- ultimate goal of Hinduism is to join with Brahman; karma; drama- following the religious and moral duties of individuals
What are the benefits of India's caste system in relationship to Hinduism?
keeps everyone doing their job under the idea of boasting karma; everyone stays content in their jobs
What are some similarities between Hinduism and Buddhism?
Reincarnation; dharma; several gods; nonviolence
What does Buddhism belief in the Hinduism doesn't?
Nirvana; Eightfold path; more personal
Where was Buddhism mainly located?
What are the Four Noble Truths?
Life is full of suffering, pain and sorrow; the cause of suffering Is desire; the only cure for suffering is to overcome desire; the way to overcome desire is the eight fold path
Explain Siddhartha Gautama and his journey.
Very rich prince; travels outside of the city walls one day; encounters and old man, a sick man, and a corpse; understands there is a great deal of suffering in the world; leaves castle to understand nirvana; when meditates under the Bodhi tree and achieves enlightenment and comes up with the 4 Noble Truths
What are the 10 Commandments in Judaism?
1st 4 talk about their relationship to God; Sabbath-Saturday is holy day; last 6 are laws of live by
Explain the relationships in Confucianism.
There are 5 main relationships: parent to child, friend to friend, husband to wife, ruler to subject and older brother to younger brother; family is very important; parent to child most important relationship; almost always a superior and inferior in relationships; superiors are expected to be intelligent; inferior's supposed to be obedient to their superiors; relationships usually dictate behavior
What are good things of a strong government?
Better army; stability; expansion; people better controlled; more unified
What are the bad things of a strong government?
Harsh rule; people suffer to strengthen government; tyrants; torture;
What are good things of a weak government?
Gold ages; advances in science and medicine; jobs by doing well; less harsh punishments; people happier; inventions;
What are bad things of a weak government?
Less unified; less stable; more likely to get invaded
Explain the Roman Republic.
people chose group of officials; hated kings and the ideas of kings; senate most powerful; 300 landholding patricians served for life and made laws; elect 2 consuls who commanded military; if war senate would elect a dictator who would have complete control of the government for 6 months then was expected to give up power
Explain Plebeians and government.
got right to elect a tribune; veto laws that were unfair to the Plebs; eventually got Plebs the right to become consuls, other high offices and even to the senate itself
Explain the 1st Punic War.
Defeated Carthage and won Corsica, Sicily and Sardinia
Explain the 2nd Punic War.
Carthage wanted revenge sending Hannibal to invade Rome; Took 15 years to cross Alps but caught Rome by surprise; Won many battles inside Italy but never took Rome; Carthage didn't defend its home and though Rome took it and Hannibal had to surrender
Explain the 3rd Punic War.
Rome still angry and decides to destroy Carthage; so angry they killed everyone and salted the earth so nothing would ever grow there again
Explain Caesar's rise to power in Rome
Caesar, Pompey and Crassus started a strong group called the First Triumvirate; Grew to power with Pompey; went to Gaul and after 9 year conquered it; Pompey demanded Caesar to return to Rome but disband his army; instead marched on Rome and conquered Rome; Forced senate to make him dictator for life; make reforms for the Plebs and gave a bunch of people citizenship; he was well liked
What happened at Caesar's assassination?
Senate worried and killed him on the Ides of March
What happened in Byzantium?
felt threatened by Turks; Christians can't go on pilgrimages to holy land; Byzantium emperor Alexius 1 asks pop Urban II for help; Urban calls Europe and Christians together claiming god wills us to take back holy land
Why did Rome decline?
Military- constant invasions weakened empire, armies were weak in general- worse training and gear, mercenaries not loyal to Rome; Political- oppressive government lost support of people, constant changes in ruler left the people unsure of the empire, dividing the empire weakened the west leaving it open for invasion and conquest; Economic Causes- More taxes to support military and empire hurt businesses, slaves made rich richer and poor poorer; Social Causes- as mercenaries became more popular romans felt less roman; Patricians focused more on luxury instead of ruling; Environment- possible earthquake, plague
Who started the Crusades?
What were the motivations for the crusades?
Citizens in Europe- only first son inherits land, others want riches too; Heal schism between east and west religions; more power; Christians stop killing each other
What happened in the first crusade?
Christians capture Jerusalem in 1099; kill off all Muslims and Jews in city to celebrate; 1187 Saladin retakes Jerusalem; allows pilgrimages from Christians
What happened in the 2nd and 3rd crusade?
Less concerned about holy land and more about getting loot and killing Muslims
What happened in the 4th Crusade?
Europeans on their way to Jerusalem run out of money on the way to the holy land; stop in Constantinople; instead of going to holy land loot and kill Christians in Byzantium; Christians overthrown in holy land and Muslims celebrate with slaughtering of a bunch of Christians
What are the impacts of the crusades?
Muslims unites; trade expands; Byzantium drove further away from west; monarch power grows; world view increases
What was the Spanish Inquisition?
Christians retaking Spain; Ferdinand and Isabella marry and vow to make Spain Christian again kill 150,000 non Christians in Spain in large witch hunt
How does the Church maintain power?
Everyone is a sinner>only way to not go to hell is sacraments> priests or church only ones who can perform sacraments>Need church to avoid hell>everyone loves church; excommunicate people
Explain Gregory VII vs Henry IV.
Gregory names himself new Emperor of Rome; Henry dislikes Gregory is taking away his power; Gregory excommunicates Henry>Henry's people revolt> Henry seeks forgiveness>Pope gives it because he has to>Henry marched on Rome and banished pope
Explain Feudalism in the Middle Ages.
The church is at the top then the king then lords then knights then peasants; everything is chosen randomly; peasants farm and get protection and land; church collects tithe from everyone
Where did the plague hit first?
How many people died from the plague?
1/3 to 2/3 of all Europeans
What were the causes of the plague?
People thought- Witches, sinners, Jews; actually fleas on rats
What was the effect of the plague?
Church weaken because people wondered what kind of a god would do this; many popes fight for control of the church
Explain the 100 years War.
English king Edward the 3rd tries to claim parts of France; long bows and cannons help English win several victories; Joan of Arc- 17 year old peasant woman, God told her to fight for France; French king giver her command out of desperation; Capture by English, need a way to discredit her, put her on trial for witch craft, burned her; FRANCE WINS
What was the purpose of the Silk Road?
To trade goods and ideas
Explain the spread of Islam.
Persia and Byzantium; northern Africa; Spain; taxed those who weren't Muslim
Who were the Sunni
believed that the leader should just be a leader; 90% of Muslims in the world
Who were the Shiite?
Believe that leader should be a religious authority and descendent of Muhammad; Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Yemen
Explain Muhammad's Journey.
Born 570 CE; grew into a successful merchant; Angel Gabriel came to Muhammad and told to start and spread Islam; Mecca didn't like Muhammad spreading word of new religion; worried all the pilgrims would be scarred off kicked Muhammad and followers out; went to Medina and became king
What are the 5 pillars of Islam?
1. "No God but God and Muhammad messenger of god'; did believe in Abraham, Moses, Jesus 2. Daily prayer 3. Alms/charity to the poor 4. Fasting during Ramadan 5. Pilgrimage to Mecca called Hajj
know little about it; good empire; farmland was fertile and used this to build population and strength; height of capital in 1300; traded across Indian Ocean because they found Indian beads and Chinese porcelain; traded gold and copper jewelry; decline around 1500; Causes- over farming; civil war, lack of trade; Portuguese traders moving in on their territory
Wanted the riches from the trade routes; Mansas=kings of Mali; Timbuktu was a huge trade city formed by these salt/gold route ;Mansa Musa- expanded Mali to Atlantic and northward conquering many cities; many an extremely safe empire; converted to Islam, on is pilgrimage he gave away great wealth along the way making important friends; his journey brought many scholars to Timbuktu
Ecuador to Chili; Emperor was divine; military expansionism; roads were better than Rome; Cuzco main city; most people farmers; metalworking blending several metals; surgery; religion-sun god most important festival for each month
300-900 CE; Southern Mexico to Central America; Religion-Huge temples, tallest buildings in American until 1903; Social Structure-each city had its own chieftain, nobles were military leaders and government workers, most people farmers; Learning- writing similar to hieroglyphics, 365 day calendar for earth and a 260 day calendar for Venus, number system with 0; Decline-Mayans left their cities, no one knows why, could have been-Frequent War, overpopulation, peasant revolts
North to the valley of Mexico; switched from hunting to farming; conquered neighbors all around Mexico; 30 million; demanded tributes from conquered people; Emperor ruled over all empire; Religion-Sun god was biggest, sun may not rise each day and had to fight off the night, human sacrifice gave un strength to fight, lots of sacrifices from conquered people; Education- priests were knowledge keepers, knew a lot of medicinal herbs and surgeries
What was the longest African civilization that was Christian?
What was the Peloponnesian War (short)?
War between Athens and Sparta for control over other Greek City states
Who conquered Rome in 476?
What is the yellow river also known as?
River of Sorrows
Who ended the Rome Republic and how?
Julius Caesar by defeating Pompey
Why were Egyptian Gods calm?
The Nile was came
Who got back the holy land and united the Muslims?
Who took over Ghana?
Who were Greek Philosophers?
Aristotle, Socrates, Plato
What animals were in America?
Why does Rome hate Kings?
Tranquil the Proud Legend
Who legalized religion in Rome?