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Flashcards in World Geography Final Deck (211):
1

Prince Henry of Portugal was better known by this name.

Henry the Navigator

2

After establishing trade relations throughout the continent of Africa, The Portuguese gave this nickname to the continent's western coast

The Gold Coast

3

By 1500, this Portuguese capital had become the trading center of Europe

Lisbon

4

Christopher Columbus was a native of this country

Italy

5

Christopher Columbus's most famous voyages were made for this country

Spain

6

What was the name that many Europeans in the 1400s called the seemingly never-ending expanse of water that was West of the continent?

Ocean sea

7

Why was Portugal so interested in finding new routes to China/India?

There was not port in the Mediterranean Sea, so they wanted a better route to China/India so they could obtain more goods

8

What were two reasons why Columbus was able to convince Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand to finance his trip west to find a shortcut to the East Indies?

1. Columbus promised he would spread Christianity
2. If Columbus was successful, Spain would become very wealthy

9

What was the name of Columbus's largest ship?

Santa Maria

10

What island did Columbus actually discover?

San Salvador

11

What is a sect?

A religious group that has broken away from an established church

12

What is The Prince?

Book that detailed how to gain and keep power and stressed that the ends justified the means

13

What is theocracy?

A government run by religious leaders

14

What is Patron?

A financial supporter of the arts

15

What is indulgences?

Money paid to the church to lessen a person's time in purgatory

16

What is heliocentric?

The theory that they sun was the center of the universe and the Earth revolved around the sun

17

What is Utopia?

A perfect, ideal society

18

What is The Book of Courtier?

Book that describes the Ideal Man

19

What is Ghetto?

Separate sections of cities where usually only one ethnic group lives

20

What is Renaissance?

A cultural awakening or rebirth

21

What were a part of Humanities?

Grammar, Rhetoric, History NOT SCIENCE

22

Renaissance art reflected the humanist interest in

Individual achievement

23

Humanist scholars differed from medieval thinkers in that humanists

Used Greek and Roman writings to understand their own culture

24

Martin Luther was outraged over the selling of indulgences because

Popes had no authority to say when people could get into heaven

25

Anabaptists believed that infants should not be baptized because

Infants are too young to accept the Christian faith

26

What was the Elizabethan settlement?

A compromise in the Catholic and Protestant faiths in England

27

Who stated, "I think, therefore I am"?

Rene Descartes

28

Which of the following was allowed according to Martin Luther's teachings?

Allowing clergy to marry

29

Which was NOT an effect of the invention of the Printing Press?

Increased Illiteracy

30

The Last Supper and the Mona Lisa were the work of the great artist

Leonardo da Vinci

31

The calculations of astronomer Johannes Kepler showed that

The planets move around the sun in oval orbits

32

What triggered the events that resulted in the formation of the Church of England (Anglican Church)?

Henry VIII wanted a divorce

33

What officially made Henry VIII the head of the Church of England (Anglican Church)?

The Acts of Supremacy

34

Today's Baptists, Mennonites, and Amish can all trace their religious ancestry to the

Anabaptists

35

What were the 95 Theses?

It was a list of arguments against the sale of indulgences

36

Which was NOT an example of religious intolerance between 1450 and 1750?

Allowing religious sects similar to Christianity, such as Anabaptists

37

In the scientific method, a hypothesis is a

Possible explanation to be tested

38

How did Martin Luther react when peasant rebels took up his banner as a means of bringing about social change in Germany?

He denounced the peasants, and the rebellion was suppressed

39

Following the rise of Protestantism, this group met to oversee Catholic reform

The Council of Trent

40

Sir Isaac Newton was instrumental in the formation of this subject in mathematics

Calculus

41

What is Divine Right?

Authority to rule was given directly from God

42

What is Armada?

Fleet of ships

43

What is Huguenots?

French Protestants

44

What is westernization?

Embrace of western culture, ideas and technology

45

What is boyars?

Russian Landowning Nobles

46

Why did Charles the V abdicate ( give up) the Spanish throne in 1566?

He thought that is was impossible to rule 2 different empires

47

In 1571, Spain defeated the Ottoman Empire in a great victory for the Spaniards and Catholicism at the Battle of

Lepanto

48

What did Miguel De Cervantes write that is considered Europe's 1st modern novel?

Don Quixote

49

In France, King Henry IV's "Edict of Nantes" said that

Huguenots were granted religious toleration

50

French King Louis XIV gave himself the nickname

The Sun King

51

In France, what was the Estates General?

A legislative body made up of all of France's social classes

52

Why did Peter the Great spend time in western Europe?

To learn about European technology and modernization

53

What was the symbol of Peter's absolute power and desire to create a modern Russia?

St. Petersburg

54

What words describe Catherine the Great?

Enlightened and Efficient

55

What is an entrepreneur?

A person who manages and assumes the financial risk of new businesses

56

What is Jethro Tull?

Inventor of the seed drill

57

What is Jeremy Bentham?

British philosopher and economist who advocated utilitarianism

58

What is Proletariat?

Karl Marx's name for the Industrial Working Class

59

What is Urbanization?

The movement of people to cities

60

What is Laizze-faire?

Philosophy where the government has a hands off approach to business

61

What is a turnpike?

A private toll road

62

What is anesthetics?

Drugs that prevents pain during surgery

63

What is a tenement?

An apartment building for the working class

64

What is James Watt?

Improved the steam engine in the late 1700s

65

During the Industrial Revolution, life changed in what basic way?

People migrated from rural areas to cities

66

The first factories developed in what industry?

Textiles

67

Land enclosure in the 1600s and 1700s resulted in

Larger farms

68

1700s farming methods improved in all of the following ways EXCEPT

Farms got smaller, so farmers could focus more on their crops

69

The cotton gin was a machine that could

separate seeds from raw cotton

70

Great Britain was a leader in the Industrial Revolution for all of the following reasons EXPECT

Its farmland was mostly poor, causing many to find other types of jobs

71

The world's first major rail line was located

In England, from Liverpool to Manchester

72

The putting-out system was a method of

Producing cloth in individual homes

73

The people who lived in tenements in industrial cities were part of the Industrial

Working Class

74

Laws called "Factory Acts" were passed in early 1800s to

Reform child labor

75

Many early factory workers were woman because

Employers could pay woman less than men

76

What was one reason that most Industrial Working class parents did not mind their children working?

Their families needed the income

77

During the Industrial Revolution John Wesley founded which new form of Christianity?

Methodism

78

According to laizzez-faire economists, the cure for poverty was

Running businesses that were free from government interference

79

According to Socialists, the solution to poverty and injustice was

Shared ownership by all people of the means of production (factories, farms, railroads, etc)

80

The Luddites were a

Labor organization

81

Thomas Malthus discouraged vaccinations because

Diseases was a natural means of population control

82

Which of the following best describes David Ricardo's "Iron Law of Wages"?

Wage increases will not raise the standard of living poor families because they'll just have more children

83

"The greatest happiness for the greatest number" was a goal of

utilitarianism

84

Karl Marx hated capitalism because he believed that it

Created prosperity for a few and poverty for many

85

What is Imperialism?

Domination of one country by another

86

What is missionaries?

Someone who is sent on a religious cause

87

What is famine?

Mass starvation

88

What is sati?

Widows had to kill themselves when their husbands died

89

What is Sepoy?

Indian Soldiers

90

Which of the following was NOT a major cause of European Imperialism?

Communist ideology

91

European overseas expansion was partly fueled by industrial companies needs for this

Natural resources

92

This type of colonial rule was most commonly practice by Great Britain

Indirect Rule

93

Where was the conference held that partitioned( broke up) Africa amongst European powers in 1884?

Berlin

94

What country gained territorial holdings in Africa that were roughly the size of the United States?

France

95

The Sepoy Rebellion was caused by?

British insensitivity to Indian customs

96

What was one advantage that European countries had over African countries when trying to imperialize?

Better technology therefore better weapons

97

King Leopold of Belgium started a "Mad dash" for Africa after he did what?

Started to colonize the Congo, Africa

98

Name the largest African country that remained independent throughout the imperialist ear of 1880-1914

Ethiopia

99

In which city did he assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand take place?

Sarajevo, Bosnia

100

What does Conscription mean?

Required military service

101

The US threatened to cut off diplomatic relations with German after which boat was sunk?

Lusitania

102

Which of US President Wilson's Fourteen Points was the one he was the most adamant about not compromising on?

Establishment of a League of Nations

103

What were France's goals at the Paris Peace Conference that resulted in the Versailles Treaty?

They wanted Germany so greatly weakened that they could never invade France again

104

What does MANIA stand for?

Militarism, Alliances, Nationalism, Imperialism, Assassination

105

Who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand?

Black Hands- Gavrilo Princip

106

When did the assassination take place?

June 28, 1914

107

"Dominoes" after his death that led to war

Austria blamed Serbia for Ferdinand's death and declared war on Serbia
Germany pledged support to Austria
Russia pledges support to Serbia-Mobilizes for war
Germany declared war on Russia
France pledges support to Russia
Germany declares war on France
Germany invaded Belgium on way to France
GB supported Belgium and declared war on Germany

108

Who was on Triple Alliance?

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy

109

Who was on Triple Entente?

England, France, Russia

110

What was the Schlieffen Plan?

Designed to fight 2 front war; Idea was to move quickly against France before Russia could Mobilize

111

Why did the SP not work?

Russia mobilized for war faster than Germany thought; British and French troops pushed Germans back

112

What is Stalemate?

Neither side was able to defeat the other

113

Western front in WWI opponents.

Britain/France vs Germany

114

Western front techniques/strategies

Long, deep trenches to protect armies from fire

115

Western Front results

Battle lines mostly unchanged for 4 years

116

Eastern Front opponents

Russia vs Germany

117

Eastern Front techniques and strategies

Battle lines shift greatly; Russia pushed deep in to Germany

118

Eastern Front results

Russia defeated in Battle of Tanner burg so had to retreat back to Russia

119

What were new technologies and weapons?

Rapid-fire machines guns; Log range artillery; Poison gas; Tanks; Aircraft; Zeppelins; Submarines

120

What are zeppelins?

Large gas filled balloons

121

What did the German's call submarines?

Unterseeboot- U-boat

122

Why was the Ottoman Empire strategically important?

Location; without them CP would have been surrounded; cut supply lines from Russia to other allies

123

Who was in Allied Powers?

Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy

124

Who was in Central Powers?

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire

125

What is total war?

Nations realized winning required use of all their resources

126

Examples of total war

Conscription; Rationed food and other products; Raised taxes and borrowed money; Set price controls

127

What happened at the sinking of the Lusitania?

German's said they would sink all ships carrying British goods with U-Boats; sunk ones will Americans on it who were killed

128

Why was the sinking important?

Angered US-Threatened to cut off diplomatic relations; Germany had to give warnings

129

What is propaganda?

Spreading of ideas that promote a cause or damage an opponent

130

How and examples of how propaganda was used?

Posters urged civilians to save resources; scare tactics to motivate people to join the army or buy war bond

131

Why was propaganda used?

To control public opinion

132

Why did the US get involved on Allied side?

Cultural ties; Germany broke promises, Zimmerman note

133

What difference did the US make in the war?

Helped allied push German troops back and force their surrender

134

Who was involved in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk?

Russia Leader- Vladimir Lenin

135

What did the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk say?

Pulled Russia out of WWI after 3 years

136

What was the Zimmerman Note?

German proposal to Mexico that if they fought against US, Germany would help them regain lost territory

137

What were Wilson's 14 points?

List of terms to resolve WWI and future conflicts

138

What did the Wilson's 14 points say?

Freedom of seas; free trade; no secret alliances

139

Which of the points was most important to Wilson?

League of Nations

140

What was Spanish Influenza?

Flu

141

What were results of Spanish influenza?

Few moths 20 million were killed worldwide more than in WWI

142

What are reparations?

Payments for war damage

143

Who was the leader of France and what did they want?

Georges Clemenceau- Wanted to weaken Germany so it could never again invade France

144

Who was the leader of Britain and what did they want?

David Lloyd- Wanted Germany to pay heavy reparations

145

Who was the leader of Italy and what did they want?

Vittorio Orlando- Wanted territorial gains promised to Italy

146

Who was the leader of US and what did they want?

Woodrow Wilson- Wanted 14 points, especially League of Nations

147

Treaty of Versailles results for Germany

Had to pay massive reparations; severe limits on German military; Germany lost territory

148

Was the treaty of Versailles and success and why or why not?

No; led to WWII because it made Germany angry

149

Why did the US not join the League of Nations?

Us didn't want to get involved in future wars

150

What is Lebensraum?

Living Space

151

What is 3rd Reich

Boasted that Germans would dominate Europe for 1000 years

152

What is Der Furher?

The leader

153

What is Appeasement?

Giving into demands of an aggressor in order to maintain peace

154

What is Aryan Race?

Blond haired, blue eyed Native German people

155

German's reactions to Versailles Treaty

Germany in total chaos; mad at Europe and government

156

Name of new government after WWI for Germany

Weimar Republic

157

Why did French seize Ruhr Valley?

Germany fell behind on paying reparations to France

158

Adolf Hitler background

Born in Austria; Hoped to become an artist; Hated WR; Wrote book; Fought for Germany in WWI; went to jail

159

Adolf Hitler Political party

National Socialist Workers Party; Nazi Party

160

Translation of Mein Kampf

My struggle

161

Where was Mein Kampf written?

Prison

162

What did Mein Kampf say?

About his beliefs; Hatred of Jews; Need for German living space

163

Who was involved in the Munich Conference?

British France Germany

164

What was decided in the Munich Conference?

British/French chose appeasement; Hitler promises o more expansion

165

What happened to Poland during the Nazi-Soviet Pact

Divided up Poland secretly between Germany and Russia

166

What is Blitzkrieg?

Lightning War-Striking a devastating blow to an enemy very quickly

167

Luftwaffe

German Air Force

168

Vichy France

Puppet state in south France

169

Scorched Earth Campaign

Destroying anything of value so Nazis couldn't' use it

170

Why did Hitler backstab USSR?

Wanted their raw materials, farm land and forests; Also wanted to crush communism

171

How did Hitler Backstab The USSR?

Operation Barbarossa; Advanced into Russia; Took over the rest of Poland

172

Who was the Battle of Stalingrad between?

Soviet Union and Nazis

173

What was the significance of the Battle of Stalingrad?

Turing point of the war between Germany and USSR

174

What stopped Hitler's momentum in trying to conquer the USSR?

Scorched Earth Campaign

175

Description of D-Day

150,000 troops stormed the beaches at Normandy, France; June 6, 1944

176

Significance of D-Day

Battled Germans and were able to establish France in France again

177

What was discussed/decided at the Tehran Conference

Allied agreed to open 2nd front in Europe; Huge invasion of French coast planned

178

What was discussed/decided at the Yalta Conference?

Discuss postwar goals; Agreed USSR would enter fighting vs Japan after 3 months; planned to split Germany into 4 zones of influence

179

Anti Semitism

Hatred/discrimination of Jews

180

Gestapo

Secret police to identify enemies of the Nazis

181

Kristallnacht

Night of broken glass; Gestapo and Nazi thugs destroyed hundreds of Jewish stores, home and synagogues

182

Einsatzgruppen

Mobile killing squad; Charged with rounding up Jews and exterminating them

183

Genocide

Deliberate destruction of a specific race of group of people

184

At first, how were Jews excluded from public life?

Political-not allowed to hold offices; social-Jews were not allowed to marry non-Jews; Economic-Jewish businesses were boycotted

185

How did the Nazis force Jews to identify themselves?

ID cards marked with large red J; given new middle names; Sew yellow star of David on all clothing

186

Other than Jews, what other groups else were consider "undesirable" to Hitler?

Homosexuals; Communists; Gypsies; Homeless

187

Death Camp entry process

Jews put on train cars; Split into 2groups; many woman children, elderly killed; strong men/woman/children worked to death

188

Death camp life

Heads shaved; given numbered tattoos on forearms; one set of clothes; daily food; tortured or performed cruel medical experiments; weak prisoners gassed

189

What was the name of the gas they use?

Zyklon B

190

Largest camps

Auschwitz; Majdanek

191

What was the result of trails against Nazi officials

Said they were 'following orders'; idea rejects;12 Nazi defendants receive death penalty

192

Puppet State

"independent" state under control of a powerful neighbor

193

What was the name of the American that opened Japan up the world?

Matthew Perry

194

Why did Japan say they created Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere?

they wanted to liberate Asia from Europe

195

Why did Japan really great the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere?

Just needed resources

196

US response to Japanese expansion

US limited trade to "punish" them; Banned selling scrap iron and steel to them; Frozen Japanese financial assets in US; Cut off oils shipments

197

Who was Hideki Tojo?

Prime minister in Japan; General

198

What did Tojo want with the US?

Supported war with US and began preparing for one

199

What happened at Pearl Harbor

Japan had bombed Hawaii with 180 planes, 6 aircraft carriers and 20 other ships; Goal-knockout blow before US could respond

200

Results of Pearl Harbor

In 2 hours killed 2,400 Americans, injured 1,200; damaged or destroyed 200 US warplanes, suck or damaged18 warships including 8/9 battleships

201

When was Pearl Harbor?

Dec 7th, 1941

202

What was Island-Hopping?

Selectively attacking specific islands, while ignoring others

203

Why was Island Hopping done?

To get home islands of Japan

204

Did Island Hopping work?

Yes; able to surround Japanese home islands

205

Who started Manhattan Project?

FDR

206

Who led MP?

Robert Oppenheimer

207

What was the goal of MP?

Create atomic bomb before Hitler did; Hit Germany before Germany could hit US

208

Why did the US think it was necessary to drop the bomb?

Wanted war to be over before Russia entered, so they would have no say in post war decisions; US threaten by Russia's strength and bomb could send a message

209

Were there any other alternatives to ending the war

Mass invasions of japan; Naval blockade and conventional bombing; drop bomb on deserted island near Japan to show our strength; soften allies demands for unconditional surrender

210

Why did the US decide to end up dropping it?

Truman-thought no decision; He was going to use any weapon he could find to end fighting

211

Where was it dropped?

Hiroshimaa, Japan