Flashcards in World Geography Final Deck (211):
Prince Henry of Portugal was better known by this name.
Henry the Navigator
After establishing trade relations throughout the continent of Africa, The Portuguese gave this nickname to the continent's western coast
The Gold Coast
By 1500, this Portuguese capital had become the trading center of Europe
Christopher Columbus was a native of this country
Christopher Columbus's most famous voyages were made for this country
What was the name that many Europeans in the 1400s called the seemingly never-ending expanse of water that was West of the continent?
Why was Portugal so interested in finding new routes to China/India?
There was not port in the Mediterranean Sea, so they wanted a better route to China/India so they could obtain more goods
What were two reasons why Columbus was able to convince Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand to finance his trip west to find a shortcut to the East Indies?
1. Columbus promised he would spread Christianity
2. If Columbus was successful, Spain would become very wealthy
What was the name of Columbus's largest ship?
What island did Columbus actually discover?
What is a sect?
A religious group that has broken away from an established church
What is The Prince?
Book that detailed how to gain and keep power and stressed that the ends justified the means
What is theocracy?
A government run by religious leaders
What is Patron?
A financial supporter of the arts
What is indulgences?
Money paid to the church to lessen a person's time in purgatory
What is heliocentric?
The theory that they sun was the center of the universe and the Earth revolved around the sun
What is Utopia?
A perfect, ideal society
What is The Book of Courtier?
Book that describes the Ideal Man
What is Ghetto?
Separate sections of cities where usually only one ethnic group lives
What is Renaissance?
A cultural awakening or rebirth
What were a part of Humanities?
Grammar, Rhetoric, History NOT SCIENCE
Renaissance art reflected the humanist interest in
Humanist scholars differed from medieval thinkers in that humanists
Used Greek and Roman writings to understand their own culture
Martin Luther was outraged over the selling of indulgences because
Popes had no authority to say when people could get into heaven
Anabaptists believed that infants should not be baptized because
Infants are too young to accept the Christian faith
What was the Elizabethan settlement?
A compromise in the Catholic and Protestant faiths in England
Who stated, "I think, therefore I am"?
Which of the following was allowed according to Martin Luther's teachings?
Allowing clergy to marry
Which was NOT an effect of the invention of the Printing Press?
The Last Supper and the Mona Lisa were the work of the great artist
Leonardo da Vinci
The calculations of astronomer Johannes Kepler showed that
The planets move around the sun in oval orbits
What triggered the events that resulted in the formation of the Church of England (Anglican Church)?
Henry VIII wanted a divorce
What officially made Henry VIII the head of the Church of England (Anglican Church)?
The Acts of Supremacy
Today's Baptists, Mennonites, and Amish can all trace their religious ancestry to the
What were the 95 Theses?
It was a list of arguments against the sale of indulgences
Which was NOT an example of religious intolerance between 1450 and 1750?
Allowing religious sects similar to Christianity, such as Anabaptists
In the scientific method, a hypothesis is a
Possible explanation to be tested
How did Martin Luther react when peasant rebels took up his banner as a means of bringing about social change in Germany?
He denounced the peasants, and the rebellion was suppressed
Following the rise of Protestantism, this group met to oversee Catholic reform
The Council of Trent
Sir Isaac Newton was instrumental in the formation of this subject in mathematics
What is Divine Right?
Authority to rule was given directly from God
What is Armada?
Fleet of ships
What is Huguenots?
What is westernization?
Embrace of western culture, ideas and technology
What is boyars?
Russian Landowning Nobles
Why did Charles the V abdicate ( give up) the Spanish throne in 1566?
He thought that is was impossible to rule 2 different empires
In 1571, Spain defeated the Ottoman Empire in a great victory for the Spaniards and Catholicism at the Battle of
What did Miguel De Cervantes write that is considered Europe's 1st modern novel?
In France, King Henry IV's "Edict of Nantes" said that
Huguenots were granted religious toleration
French King Louis XIV gave himself the nickname
The Sun King
In France, what was the Estates General?
A legislative body made up of all of France's social classes
Why did Peter the Great spend time in western Europe?
To learn about European technology and modernization
What was the symbol of Peter's absolute power and desire to create a modern Russia?
What words describe Catherine the Great?
Enlightened and Efficient
What is an entrepreneur?
A person who manages and assumes the financial risk of new businesses
What is Jethro Tull?
Inventor of the seed drill
What is Jeremy Bentham?
British philosopher and economist who advocated utilitarianism
What is Proletariat?
Karl Marx's name for the Industrial Working Class
What is Urbanization?
The movement of people to cities
What is Laizze-faire?
Philosophy where the government has a hands off approach to business
What is a turnpike?
A private toll road
What is anesthetics?
Drugs that prevents pain during surgery
What is a tenement?
An apartment building for the working class
What is James Watt?
Improved the steam engine in the late 1700s
During the Industrial Revolution, life changed in what basic way?
People migrated from rural areas to cities
The first factories developed in what industry?
Land enclosure in the 1600s and 1700s resulted in
1700s farming methods improved in all of the following ways EXCEPT
Farms got smaller, so farmers could focus more on their crops
The cotton gin was a machine that could
separate seeds from raw cotton
Great Britain was a leader in the Industrial Revolution for all of the following reasons EXPECT
Its farmland was mostly poor, causing many to find other types of jobs
The world's first major rail line was located
In England, from Liverpool to Manchester
The putting-out system was a method of
Producing cloth in individual homes
The people who lived in tenements in industrial cities were part of the Industrial
Laws called "Factory Acts" were passed in early 1800s to
Reform child labor
Many early factory workers were woman because
Employers could pay woman less than men
What was one reason that most Industrial Working class parents did not mind their children working?
Their families needed the income
During the Industrial Revolution John Wesley founded which new form of Christianity?
According to laizzez-faire economists, the cure for poverty was
Running businesses that were free from government interference
According to Socialists, the solution to poverty and injustice was
Shared ownership by all people of the means of production (factories, farms, railroads, etc)
The Luddites were a
Thomas Malthus discouraged vaccinations because
Diseases was a natural means of population control
Which of the following best describes David Ricardo's "Iron Law of Wages"?
Wage increases will not raise the standard of living poor families because they'll just have more children
"The greatest happiness for the greatest number" was a goal of
Karl Marx hated capitalism because he believed that it
Created prosperity for a few and poverty for many
What is Imperialism?
Domination of one country by another
What is missionaries?
Someone who is sent on a religious cause
What is famine?
What is sati?
Widows had to kill themselves when their husbands died
What is Sepoy?
Which of the following was NOT a major cause of European Imperialism?
European overseas expansion was partly fueled by industrial companies needs for this
This type of colonial rule was most commonly practice by Great Britain
Where was the conference held that partitioned( broke up) Africa amongst European powers in 1884?
What country gained territorial holdings in Africa that were roughly the size of the United States?
The Sepoy Rebellion was caused by?
British insensitivity to Indian customs
What was one advantage that European countries had over African countries when trying to imperialize?
Better technology therefore better weapons
King Leopold of Belgium started a "Mad dash" for Africa after he did what?
Started to colonize the Congo, Africa
Name the largest African country that remained independent throughout the imperialist ear of 1880-1914
In which city did he assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand take place?
What does Conscription mean?
Required military service
The US threatened to cut off diplomatic relations with German after which boat was sunk?
Which of US President Wilson's Fourteen Points was the one he was the most adamant about not compromising on?
Establishment of a League of Nations
What were France's goals at the Paris Peace Conference that resulted in the Versailles Treaty?
They wanted Germany so greatly weakened that they could never invade France again
What does MANIA stand for?
Militarism, Alliances, Nationalism, Imperialism, Assassination
Who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand?
Black Hands- Gavrilo Princip
When did the assassination take place?
June 28, 1914
"Dominoes" after his death that led to war
Austria blamed Serbia for Ferdinand's death and declared war on Serbia
Germany pledged support to Austria
Russia pledges support to Serbia-Mobilizes for war
Germany declared war on Russia
France pledges support to Russia
Germany declares war on France
Germany invaded Belgium on way to France
GB supported Belgium and declared war on Germany
Who was on Triple Alliance?
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
Who was on Triple Entente?
England, France, Russia
What was the Schlieffen Plan?
Designed to fight 2 front war; Idea was to move quickly against France before Russia could Mobilize
Why did the SP not work?
Russia mobilized for war faster than Germany thought; British and French troops pushed Germans back
What is Stalemate?
Neither side was able to defeat the other
Western front in WWI opponents.
Britain/France vs Germany
Western front techniques/strategies
Long, deep trenches to protect armies from fire
Western Front results
Battle lines mostly unchanged for 4 years
Eastern Front opponents
Russia vs Germany
Eastern Front techniques and strategies
Battle lines shift greatly; Russia pushed deep in to Germany
Eastern Front results
Russia defeated in Battle of Tanner burg so had to retreat back to Russia
What were new technologies and weapons?
Rapid-fire machines guns; Log range artillery; Poison gas; Tanks; Aircraft; Zeppelins; Submarines
What are zeppelins?
Large gas filled balloons
What did the German's call submarines?
Why was the Ottoman Empire strategically important?
Location; without them CP would have been surrounded; cut supply lines from Russia to other allies
Who was in Allied Powers?
Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy
Who was in Central Powers?
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire
What is total war?
Nations realized winning required use of all their resources
Examples of total war
Conscription; Rationed food and other products; Raised taxes and borrowed money; Set price controls
What happened at the sinking of the Lusitania?
German's said they would sink all ships carrying British goods with U-Boats; sunk ones will Americans on it who were killed
Why was the sinking important?
Angered US-Threatened to cut off diplomatic relations; Germany had to give warnings
What is propaganda?
Spreading of ideas that promote a cause or damage an opponent
How and examples of how propaganda was used?
Posters urged civilians to save resources; scare tactics to motivate people to join the army or buy war bond
Why was propaganda used?
To control public opinion
Why did the US get involved on Allied side?
Cultural ties; Germany broke promises, Zimmerman note
What difference did the US make in the war?
Helped allied push German troops back and force their surrender
Who was involved in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk?
Russia Leader- Vladimir Lenin
What did the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk say?
Pulled Russia out of WWI after 3 years
What was the Zimmerman Note?
German proposal to Mexico that if they fought against US, Germany would help them regain lost territory
What were Wilson's 14 points?
List of terms to resolve WWI and future conflicts
What did the Wilson's 14 points say?
Freedom of seas; free trade; no secret alliances
Which of the points was most important to Wilson?
League of Nations
What was Spanish Influenza?
What were results of Spanish influenza?
Few moths 20 million were killed worldwide more than in WWI
What are reparations?
Payments for war damage
Who was the leader of France and what did they want?
Georges Clemenceau- Wanted to weaken Germany so it could never again invade France
Who was the leader of Britain and what did they want?
David Lloyd- Wanted Germany to pay heavy reparations
Who was the leader of Italy and what did they want?
Vittorio Orlando- Wanted territorial gains promised to Italy
Who was the leader of US and what did they want?
Woodrow Wilson- Wanted 14 points, especially League of Nations
Treaty of Versailles results for Germany
Had to pay massive reparations; severe limits on German military; Germany lost territory
Was the treaty of Versailles and success and why or why not?
No; led to WWII because it made Germany angry
Why did the US not join the League of Nations?
Us didn't want to get involved in future wars
What is Lebensraum?
What is 3rd Reich
Boasted that Germans would dominate Europe for 1000 years
What is Der Furher?
What is Appeasement?
Giving into demands of an aggressor in order to maintain peace
What is Aryan Race?
Blond haired, blue eyed Native German people
German's reactions to Versailles Treaty
Germany in total chaos; mad at Europe and government
Name of new government after WWI for Germany
Why did French seize Ruhr Valley?
Germany fell behind on paying reparations to France
Adolf Hitler background
Born in Austria; Hoped to become an artist; Hated WR; Wrote book; Fought for Germany in WWI; went to jail
Adolf Hitler Political party
National Socialist Workers Party; Nazi Party
Translation of Mein Kampf
Where was Mein Kampf written?
What did Mein Kampf say?
About his beliefs; Hatred of Jews; Need for German living space
Who was involved in the Munich Conference?
British France Germany
What was decided in the Munich Conference?
British/French chose appeasement; Hitler promises o more expansion
What happened to Poland during the Nazi-Soviet Pact
Divided up Poland secretly between Germany and Russia
What is Blitzkrieg?
Lightning War-Striking a devastating blow to an enemy very quickly
German Air Force
Puppet state in south France
Scorched Earth Campaign
Destroying anything of value so Nazis couldn't' use it
Why did Hitler backstab USSR?
Wanted their raw materials, farm land and forests; Also wanted to crush communism
How did Hitler Backstab The USSR?
Operation Barbarossa; Advanced into Russia; Took over the rest of Poland
Who was the Battle of Stalingrad between?
Soviet Union and Nazis
What was the significance of the Battle of Stalingrad?
Turing point of the war between Germany and USSR
What stopped Hitler's momentum in trying to conquer the USSR?
Scorched Earth Campaign
Description of D-Day
150,000 troops stormed the beaches at Normandy, France; June 6, 1944
Significance of D-Day
Battled Germans and were able to establish France in France again
What was discussed/decided at the Tehran Conference
Allied agreed to open 2nd front in Europe; Huge invasion of French coast planned
What was discussed/decided at the Yalta Conference?
Discuss postwar goals; Agreed USSR would enter fighting vs Japan after 3 months; planned to split Germany into 4 zones of influence
Hatred/discrimination of Jews
Secret police to identify enemies of the Nazis
Night of broken glass; Gestapo and Nazi thugs destroyed hundreds of Jewish stores, home and synagogues
Mobile killing squad; Charged with rounding up Jews and exterminating them
Deliberate destruction of a specific race of group of people
At first, how were Jews excluded from public life?
Political-not allowed to hold offices; social-Jews were not allowed to marry non-Jews; Economic-Jewish businesses were boycotted
How did the Nazis force Jews to identify themselves?
ID cards marked with large red J; given new middle names; Sew yellow star of David on all clothing
Other than Jews, what other groups else were consider "undesirable" to Hitler?
Homosexuals; Communists; Gypsies; Homeless
Death Camp entry process
Jews put on train cars; Split into 2groups; many woman children, elderly killed; strong men/woman/children worked to death
Death camp life
Heads shaved; given numbered tattoos on forearms; one set of clothes; daily food; tortured or performed cruel medical experiments; weak prisoners gassed
What was the name of the gas they use?
What was the result of trails against Nazi officials
Said they were 'following orders'; idea rejects;12 Nazi defendants receive death penalty
"independent" state under control of a powerful neighbor
What was the name of the American that opened Japan up the world?
Why did Japan say they created Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere?
they wanted to liberate Asia from Europe
Why did Japan really great the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere?
Just needed resources
US response to Japanese expansion
US limited trade to "punish" them; Banned selling scrap iron and steel to them; Frozen Japanese financial assets in US; Cut off oils shipments
Who was Hideki Tojo?
Prime minister in Japan; General
What did Tojo want with the US?
Supported war with US and began preparing for one
What happened at Pearl Harbor
Japan had bombed Hawaii with 180 planes, 6 aircraft carriers and 20 other ships; Goal-knockout blow before US could respond
Results of Pearl Harbor
In 2 hours killed 2,400 Americans, injured 1,200; damaged or destroyed 200 US warplanes, suck or damaged18 warships including 8/9 battleships
When was Pearl Harbor?
Dec 7th, 1941
What was Island-Hopping?
Selectively attacking specific islands, while ignoring others
Why was Island Hopping done?
To get home islands of Japan
Did Island Hopping work?
Yes; able to surround Japanese home islands
Who started Manhattan Project?
Who led MP?
What was the goal of MP?
Create atomic bomb before Hitler did; Hit Germany before Germany could hit US
Why did the US think it was necessary to drop the bomb?
Wanted war to be over before Russia entered, so they would have no say in post war decisions; US threaten by Russia's strength and bomb could send a message
Were there any other alternatives to ending the war
Mass invasions of japan; Naval blockade and conventional bombing; drop bomb on deserted island near Japan to show our strength; soften allies demands for unconditional surrender
Why did the US decide to end up dropping it?
Truman-thought no decision; He was going to use any weapon he could find to end fighting