Flashcards in World Geography Chapter 14 Test Deck (79):
What were the reasons that Italy was an ideal place for the European Renaissance to begin?
1. Centrally Located
2. Remnants of Roman Empire Remained
3. City-States survived the Middle Ages
What was Humanism?
The Renaissance intellectual movement focused more on worldly issues and less on religious topics
Which two ancient cultures did writers, scholars, and artists of the Renaissance adapt ideas from?
Greek and Roman
What was the name of the most important Patron Family in Florence, Italy?
The Humanities included the study of which subjects?
Grammar, Poetry, History and Rhetoric
What was Leonardo Da Vinci's most well known painting?
What did Leonardo Da Vinci sketch hundreds of years before they were actually invented?
Airplanes and Submarines
What Italian Renaissance Man painted the Sistine Chapel and created the Sculpture of David?
What book did Nichole Machiavelli write that was a story about ruthless power politics and "the ends justifying the means"
What book did Baldassare Castiglione write?
The Book of Courtier
What notable English writer is credited with creating 1500-2000 words?
What new style of art was the German artist Albrecht Surer best known for?
What was the name of the novel written by Sir Thomas More about the ideal society?
Which French humanist writer wrote "Gargantuan & Pantagruel", a story about 2 gentle giants?
What was the region of Belgium where the Northway Renaissance began, and was home to many Flemish Painters?
Who invented the printing press?
What was the most widely printed book into he Renaissance era?
Before the creation of the printing press, why could many people not read in Europe?
There were only a few thousand books on the entire continent
Where was the creator of the printing press from?
Why was the creation of the printing press important in the Renaissance?
1. More books meant more people could read
2. It allowed Renaissance ideas to easily spread across Europe
What is the definition of Renaissance?
What is the definition of patron?
Financial supporter of the arts
What is the definition of Rhetoric?
The art of skillful speaking
What is the definition of engraving?
Etching designs into metal using acid
What is theocracy?
A government run by religious leaders
Why did Mather Luther become outraged at the Catholic Church?
They were selling "indulgences"
What was the 95 Theses?
Name of the document that Martin Luther nailed to the door of the church in his town
Why did Martin Luther not like the selling of indulgences?
1.No basis in the Bible
2. Popes had no authority to say who got into heaven
3. Christians were only saved through their faith, not money
What did the Catholic Church do to Martin Luther after he posted his criticisms on the church doors
He was excommunicated
What country was Martin Luther from?
According to Protestantism, what did all Christians have equal access to God through?
Faith and the Bible
What did Martin Luther do to help ordinary people read the Bible?
Translated it into German
What were practices that the Catholic Church did that the Protestant Church banned or put an end to?
4. Prayers to saints
5. Not allowing clergy to Marry
Why did the German princes love the Protestant form of Christianity?
1. Thought it weakens Catholic Church
2. National loyalty
3. Kept German money in Germany
What did Luther do when in 1524 peasants violently revolted in Germany so that they could join Luther's new form of Christianity?
He denounced the rebellion and the violence it had brought
What country was Henry VIII from?
How many wives did Henry VIII have?
When Henry died who took over the throne?
His only son, Edward IV
What were the names of Henry's wives?
Catherine of Aragón
Anne of Cleves
What did Henry do to his 2nd and 5rh wives after they could not produce a male heir
Had them executed
What was the Elizabethan Settlement?
Restoring unity in England and finding a compromise between Protestants and Catholic practices
What was the Acts of Supremacy?
In 1534 this document gave Henry VIII the titled of supreme head of the Church of England (Anglican Church)
What was the Council of Trent?
IN 1545, Catholic leaders met here to oversee reforms in their church in response to threats from other form of Christianity
By 1600 the majority of Europe was practicing was form of Christianity?
Why were Jews in England and Europe persecuted?
They wouldn't convert to Martin Luther's teaching or accept Jesus Christ as their lord and savior
What did Keller, Copernicus, and Galileo study?
What di the Catholic Church do to Caliper Galileo after he would not fully take back his findings that went against church teachings?
Forced him to live out his life under house arrest
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek was the first known person to do what?
See cells and microorganisms under a microscope
Rene Descartes said what?
"I think, therefore I am"
What branch of mathematics did Isaac Newton help develop?
What is the definition of sect?
What was the heliocentric theory?
The idea that we live in a sun centered universe
What was the definition of ghetto?
Separate sections of cities
What is the definition of Hypothesis?
What is the definition of gravity?
Single force that keeps planets in their orbits
Patron family in Italy who paid artists to create beautiful pieces of art
Leonardo Da Vinci
Renaissance Man who was good at everything. He was an inventor, biologist, musician, engineer and artist. Known for realism and creating the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper. From Italy
From Italy; He was a sculptor, architect, painter and poet. He is most known for his sculptors of Pieta, David and for the dome in St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome
From Italy. He was a writer who wrote "The Book Of Courtier" which talked about the Ideal man and the ideal woman
Writer from Italy. Wrote "Prince", which talked about ruthless power politics and "end justify the means"
From Germany. Invented the printing press and made 15-20 million copies of the Bible
Artist from Germany. Best known for using engraving. Works portrayed religious upheaval
Dutch Priest. One of the most important scholars of the Renaissance. Produced Greek edition of Bible. Spread humanism to wider public. Encouraged open-mindedness
Sir Thomas More
English writer. Pushed for social reform. Wrote "Utopia" a book about a society in which men and woman live together in peace and harmony
English writer and poet. Wrote 37 plays still performed today. Expressed universal themes in writing. Created 1500-2000 new words or phrases
German Monk. Wrote 95 Theses about problems with church. Created Lutheranism/Protestant based off teachings
English king. Took over English Church so he could divorce his 1st wife. Against Protestant Reform
Henry's 2nd daughter. Took over in England after Mary died. Found a compromise between Protestant and catholic practices. Restored unity to England
Henry's 1st daughter. Took over England after Edward died. Vowed to return England to Catholicism
Proposed heliocentric theory but most people rejected his idea
Used Brahe's data of calculate orbits of planets. Showed that planets revolved around sun in oval shaped orbits
Observations of moon of Jupiter allowed him to agree with Heliocentric. Church threatened him if didn't take idea back, took idea back, but had to live in house arrest
Sir Francis Bacon
Stressed experimentation and observation
Emphasized human reasoning as best road to understanding. He was "I think, therefore I am"
1st accurate detailed study of human anatomy. Used autopsies to increase knowledge
Anton Van Leewenhoek
Perfected microscopes. 1st person to see cells and microorganisms
Explained all matter is made up of tiny particles
Linked sciences together. Showed that a single force keeps planets in their orbits-gravity. Developed calculus which is a branch of math use to help explain Newton's laws