Flashcards in Chapter 17 Quiz Deck (58):
Which 2 empires did Charles V take power of?
Spain and Hapsburg Empire
What does abdicated mean?
To give up the throne
What did Charles V do after he abdicated and why?
Entered a monastery; says that 2 empires were too scattered to rule effectively
Who did Charles give the 2 empires too?
His brother Ferdinand got Hapsburg Empire; His son Philip II got Spain and Spanish overseas holdings
What was the first thing Philip II did when he got into power?
Centralize his power
How did Philip II rule and what is the definition?
Absolute Monarch- Complete authority over government
What is divine right?
Authority to rule came directly from God
What was the Battle of Lepanto?
Spain and allies defeated an Ottoman fleet off coast of Greece
Why did Philip II fight with England's Queen Elizabeth?
Saw her a his greatest Protestant enemy
Why did Philip prepare to invade England?
Queen Elizabeth I supported looting and plundering of Spanish Ships
Definition of armada
Fleet of ships
What happened when Spain attacked England?
Spain's ships were to slow compared to faster lighter English ships, and many of Spain's ships sunk
Why did Spain's dominance of Europe begin to end at the defeat of Spain Vs England?
1.Poor leadership-Philip II's successors could not rule as ably as he did
2. Economic Problems- Wars drained budgets, high middle class taxes
3. Expulsion of Muslims and Jews- Forced many skilled artisans and craftsman's out
What was 1550-1650 in Spain known as?
Siglo de Oro(golden Century) for Spanish art and literature
Who was Miguel de Cervantes?
Wrote Don Quixote- Europe's 1st modern novel; made fun of medieval tales of chivalry
What religions torn France apart?
Catholics and Huguenots (French Protestants)
What did King Henry IV do to end conflicts of religion in France?
Edict of Nantes
What was the Edict of Nantes?
Granted Huguenots religious toleration and other freedoms
Who was Cardinal Richelieu?
Chief Minister; Strengthened central government and king's power
Who appointed Cardinal Richelieu?
Louis XIII (13th)
What happened when Louis XIII (13th) took over?
He was 9; nobles took advantage of him to gain more power
How old was Louis XIV )(14th) when took throne?
What occurred in his lifetime to make him take complete control of government?
Saw riots when he was very young, and was forced to hide made him vow to take complete control of government
What did Louis XIV call himself?
"The Sun King"
What are Estates General?
Representatives of French Social Class
How did Louis XIV run France?
Like a dictator
How did Louis XIB strengthen royal power?
2. Strengthened ties to middle class
3. Built army into strongest in Europe
What are Intendants?
Loyal officials who collected taxes, recruited soldiers, and carried out policies
Who was Jean-Baptiste Colbert?
Appointed by Louis XIV; Finance Minister; IN charge of bolstering economy
What did Jean-Baptiste Colbert help Louis XIV do?
1. Cleared new lands for farming
2. Encouraged more mining and other industries
3. Grew overseas French colonies in N. America
4. Built France into wealthiest country in Europe
What did Louis XIV do to create Versailles?
Louis XIV wanted to remodel an old hunted lodge outside of Paris to be his new residence
Why did Louis XIV start to live in Versailles?
Symbol of wealth and power; Ended up being the most magnificent building in Europe and cost 1.5 billion dollars
What did officials/nobles who lived at Versailles have to do?
What was Levee (Rising)?
High ranking officials and nobles would compete to hold King's wash bucket or give him his diamond covered shoes in the morning
Why was Levee important?
Way for Louis to control nobles
What did people get in return for Levee?
Didn't make them pay taxes; Protected their prestige
How long did Louis rule?
What is balance of power?
Military and economic equality so no country dominated Europe?
What did Louis XIV do having to do with religion?
Persecuted Huguenots- revoked Edict of Nantes- 100,000s fled France, leaving huge hole in French economy
What happened when Louis died?
Outlived his sons and grandsons so Great grandson put into throne at 5 years old
How old was Peter when he took over?
What did Pete want to do for his country and how?
"modernize"; journeyed west and met with ordinary people
What is westernization?
Embrace of western culture, ideas and technology
What did Peter have to do modernize country?
1. Controlled Boyars (Russian Landowning Nobles)- forced them to serve their country in the military or in civilian jobs
2. Controlled Church- Brought Russian orthodox church under his control
3. (Re)Built Infrastructure
4. Social & Economic Reforms- Improved educations, encouraged more exporting of goods, increased mining and textile manufacturing
What did Peter to do build Russia's power?
Created Europe's largest standing army; increased trade, tried to wage war against Ottoman to get a port in the Black Sea but failed
What is a warm weather port?
Free of ice all year long
What was the Northern War?
Russia went to war to gain Sweden territory; army of 40,000 (r) lost of an arm of 8,000 (s); 9 years later Russia beat Sweden
Where was Russia's new capital city located?
St. Petersburg, located on the Baltic Sea
How did Peter complete his city?
Forced 10,000s of serfs/peasants to drain swamps and build from scratch; hired Italian architects to design great palaces; Peter designed parks, streets
Why was Peter's city similar to Versailles?
Became symbols of absolute power
What was positive about Peter's legacy?
Ended Russia's isolation from Europe; Expanded Russian Territory- gained ports on Baltic Sea
What was negative about Peter's legacy?
Used terror to enforce his authority; Not all his reforms were accepted, and once he died they were reversed
How did Catherine the Great get into power?
Tsar Peter III took control, he married Catherine and she assassinate him
What did Catherine the Great do as a ruler?
ruled as "Enlightened Ruler"; efficient and energetic; Embraced Western ideas- encouraged education for boys and girls, studied and admired French writers
What is similar between Philip II, Louis XIV, Pete the great?
Took over all of the government, all fought many wars and people; each had something significant in Europe(Spain started out as dominate in Europe, then France and Russia had biggest army)
What is similar between Philip II and Louis XIV?
Both thought God gave them the power of the throne; Defended Catholicism and hurt any other religion; Both once had most dominate country in Europe
What is similar between Philip II and Peter?