Chapter 29-Protists Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 29-Protists Deck (58):
1

Differences between Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes

1.)Internal Membrane
2.)Compartmentalization
3.)Cytoskeleton

2

7 Groups of Protists

1.)Diplomonads, Parabasalids
2.)Euglenozoa
3.)Alveolata
4.)Stramenopila
5.)Rhodophyta
6.)Chlorophyta
7.)Choanoflagellida

3

What are Pseudopods
-lobopods
-fliopods
-axopods

"False feet"
Lobopods-large,blunt
filopods-thin,branching
axopods-thin,long

4

Differences btwn Cilia+Flagella

Flagella=1 or more
Cilia=shorter and more numerous

5

What is a Photoautotroph

Photosynthetic organism

6

What is a chemoheterotroph

Organism who ingests food

7

What is a mixotroph

Organism that is both phototrophic and chemoheterotrophic

8

What mode of Reproduction do ALL protists have
-Budding
-Binary Fission
-Schizogany

Asexual
-One daughter cell smaller
-equal size daughter cells
-cell division preceded by several nuclear divisions:multiple daughter cells

9

Do protists sexually reproduce?

Yes. Meiosis to produce haploid gametes/spores

10

are diplomonads multi or single celled

unicellular

11

How do diplomonads move

flagella

12

Do diplomonads have mitochodria

Yes-but degenerate

13

Where are parabasalids found/why

Termite guts because they have cellulose degrading bacteria

14

What group of protists cause stds

Parabasalids

15

What type of locomotion do Parabasalids use

Flagella and undulating membrane

16

What group contain Mitochondria

Euglenozoa

17

What group is both heterotrophic (in the dark) and autotrophic

Euglenozoa

18

What mode of reproduction do Euglenozoa have

Asexual

19

What are the 2 groups of Euglenozoa

Euglena
Kinetoplastids

20

What type of movement do Euglena have

2 anterior and unequal flagella

21

Describe some characteristics of Euglena

Have contractile vacuoles for excess water
Move towards light
Numerous small chloroplasts from green algae

22

What are the Kinetoplastids named after, and why are they unique

Their single unique mitochondria
-has 2 types of DNA, maxicircles and Minicircles

23

In Kinetoplastids, what causes human diseases+ name them

Trypanosomes
-African Sleeping Sickness
-chagas disease-contact w/infected animal blood

24

Why are trypanosomes hard to control

repeatedly change protective coat

25

What are unique to Group Alveolata

Flattened vesicles called alveoli under cell membrane

26

3 subgroups in Alveolata

Dinoflagellates
Apicomplexans
Ciliates

27

Dinoflagellates

Photosynthetic, unicellular w/flagella
Live in aquatic environments
Can be luminescent

28

what makes red tide+what is it

Dinoflagellates
blooms of dinoflagellate, toxic to marine mammals + fish/birds

29

What protists do not have histones

Dinoflagellates

30

What are apicomplexans

Subgroup of Alveolata
Spore forming animal parasites

31

What is the apical complex and what group does it pertain too

A unique arrangement of organelles at one end of the cell
-enables cell to invade its host

32

What is the cause of malaria

Apicomplexans
-Plasmodium invades cell

33

What are unique to ciliates

Large numbers of cilia arranged in longitudinal rows or spirals around the cell

34

Ciliate Nuclei

Micronucleus-Regulates conjugation
Macronucleus-essential for normal functions

35

How many vacuoles do ciliates have

2-
-Food vacuoles
-Contractile vacuoles=regulation of water balance

36

Conjugation

Only different mating types can conjugate
-involves meiosis of micronuclei, mitosis, and exchange of micronuclei

37

What group are brown algae, diatoms, and oomycetes in

Stramenopila

38

Stramenopila are defined by what?

Very fine hairs on their flagella

39

Describe Brown Algae

Stramenopila
Large, multicellular
Photosynthetic
Includes largest protists
haploid + diploid portions of life cycle

40

Brown algae life cycle

Alteration of gen.
2n sporophyte--1n gametophyte

41

Describe how kelp form

2n sporophyte cells go through meiosis to produce 1n spores. spores germinate and do mitosis to produce kelps

42

What protist has unique double shells made of cilia

Diatoms

43

Describe Diatoms

Stramenopila
Photosynthetic, unicellular organism
Use raphes-2 long grooves lined with vibrating fibrils

44

What causes blights to potatos

Oomycetes

45

Name some info about Oomycetes

Parasitic or saprobes
once consider fungi
Motile zoospores produced asexually
Sexual reproduction
water/land

46

What group are red algae in

Rhodophyta

47

What do Rhodophyta lack

Flagella and centrioles

48

2 groups of Amoebas

Rhizopoda-True amoebas
Actinopoda-other amoebas

49

How do Rhizopoda move

Cytoplasmic projections called pseudopods

50

2 characteristics of Actinopods

Glassy exoskeletons made of silica
Needlelike pseudopods

51

What are Foraminifera

Heterotrophic Marine Protists

52

How do Foraminifera move

Thin Podia extend through their shells (called tests), use them for feeding and swimming

53

What make the greates amount of sea deposits

Foraminifera because of their limestone rich shells

54

2 Lineages of Slime Molds

Plasmodial Slime Molds
Cellular Slime Molds

55

Describe Plamodial Slime Molds

Huge, colorful masses of streaming cytoplasm consisting of multinucleate cells

56

Cellular Slime Molds exist as what

Single cells which can combine and differentiate an certain times

57

What happens to plasmodial slime molds when food/moisture is scarce

Organsim forms sporangia, where spores are produced

58

What happens to cellular slime molds when food is scarce

aggregate with other slimes to form a slug
-Slug differentiates into a sorocarp that produces spores which germinate when conditions are right