Chapter 35- Vertebrates Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 35- Vertebrates Deck (36):
1

What are chordates (phylum chordata)

deuterostome coelomates
-fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals

2

4 characteristic of chordates?

1.) nerve chord
-notochord-solid, cartilaginous rod for support
--may be replaced by vertebral column
3.)Paryngeal slits
-present in all embryo
4.)Postanal tail

3

What are the three subphyla of chordates

Urocordata (invertebrates)
Cephalochordata (invertebrates)
Vertebrata

4

What makes up subphylum Urochordata

tunicates and salps
-notochord and nerve chord in larvae
-immobile filter feeders in adults

5

What is in subphylum cephalochordata

lancelets
-notochord throughout animals life
-spend time partly burried
plankton feeders

6

Characteristics of Vertebrates?

Chordates with a vertebral column
-distinguished by nonvertebrates by vertebral column (protects dorsal nerve chord)
-head w/sensory organs
-endoskeleton made of cartilage or bone

7

What are some characteristics of fishes

vertebral column
-jaws and paired appendages
-internal gills

8

What is class myxini a part of

Jawless fish
-have notochord
hagfishes-marine scavengers

9

what is class cephalaspidomorphi

lamprey eels
-jawless fish
-notochord
-mostly fresh water

10

What is in class Chondrichthyes

Sharks, skates rays

11

What makes chondrichthyes special

cartilages skeleton calcified with calcium carbonate
-light, strong skeleton
-paired fins

12

What were the first vertebrates to develop teeth?

sharks
-evolved from rough scales on mouths skin

13

What do bony fishes and sharks have that is an evolutionary advantage?

Fully developed lateral line system
-series of sensory organs under the skin that detects changes in pressure waves

14

What makes a bony fish a bondy fish?

heavy internal skeleton made completely of bone
-adaptations of swim bladder (sac that allows from regulation of bouyancy) and gill cover(hard plate that covers gils)

15

What are in class actinopterygii

bony fishes
-ray finned fishes
parallel bony rays support and stiffen each fin

16

What are 5 distinguishing amphibian features

1. legs
2. lungs-gas exchange with atmosphere (insufficient)
3. cutaneous respiration-gas exchange through moist skin
4. pulmonary veins-allows higher blood pressure to tissues
5. partially divided heart

17

What are direct descendants of fishes

amphibians, first vertebrates to walk on land

18

what are some challenges of moving to land

legs to support weight
lungs to get ovygen from air
need to drive larger muscles

19

What is in order anura?

frogs and toads
-smooth moist skin and long legs-water
-toads have bumpy dry skin and short legs-dry land

20

What is in order caudata

salamanders

21

Class reptila

terrestrial organisms

22

what are 3 key features of reptiles

1. amniotic eggs-watertight
2.dry skin, which covers body and prevents water loss
3. thoracic breathing, which increases lung capacity

23

what are amniotic eggs?

4 membrane eggs

24

what are two important characteristics modern reptiles have developed?

Internal fertilixation
Improved circulation

25

what does it mean to be extothermic and who is

All living reptiles are
-obtain heat from external sources
-regulate body temp by moving in and out of sunlight

26

what are chelonia

turtles and toroises
-differ from all other reptiles because of shells

27

What are in order Rhynchocephalia

-large lizard like animals
-only found on islands near new zealand

28

what are in order squamata

snakes and lizards
-presence of paired copulatory organs in male

29

what is in order crocodylia

crocodiles and alligators
-crocodiles are nocturnal and in tropical regions
-bodies are well adapted to stealth hunting

30

Class aves

birds
-success lies in feathers (unique)
-birds and mammals are endotherms (regulate + generate body temperatures from internal metabolism)

31

What are 2 major distinguishing traits of birds

feathers
flight skeleton
-bones are thin and hollow

32

4 major mammalian traits

1. hair
2. mammary gland (females, for secreting milk)
3. muscular diaphragm-for breathing
4. differentiated teeth-specialized teeth

33

what are the only mammals capable of flying?

bats
-wing is a leathery membrane of skin and muscle

34

what are monotremes

lay shelled eggs
-single opening for feces, urine and reproduction

35

What are marsupials

live young born in pouches
-after birth crawls into pouch and continues to develop

36

what are placental mammals

produce a true placenta that nourishes embryo throughout its development
-young undergo a considerable period of development before being born