Chapter 49-The Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 49-The Respiratory System Deck (37):
1

Oxygen is needed why?

final electron acceptor during electron transport. Without oxygen, animal cells obtain insufficient energy to survive

2

Gas exchange

-the gases diffuse into the aqueous layer covering the epithelial cells that line the respiratory organs
-diffusion of gasses is passive, driven only by the difference in O2 and CO2 concentrations on the two sides of the membranes and their relative solubilities in the plasma membrane

3

Body surface for gas exchange

only in amphibians and annelids, a few others

4

tracheal tubes

insect's structure for gas exchange

5

lungs

reptiles, birds, and mammals structure for gas exchange

6

Gills

specialized extensions of tissue that project into water, extract oxygen from water and release carbon dioxide
-increase surface area for diffusion

7

Internal gills

gills of bondy fishes are located between oral cavity and opercular cavities
-two cavities function as pumps that alternately expand.
-move water into mouth, through gills, and out of the fish through the open operculum or gill cover

8

Lamellae

each gill filament is made of these, thin membranous plates that project into water flow

9

countercurrent flow

blood flows opposite to direction of water movement in lamellae
-maximizes ocygenation of blood
-gills are more efficient of all respiratory organs

10

cutaneous respiration

amphibians who exchange gas through body surface

11

1 atm of pressure

is a pressure of 760mm Hg

12

partial pressure

pressure contributed by a gas (i.e. oxygen) to the total atmospheric pressure

13

how does pressure change

changing the number of molecules exerting the force or by changing the surface area

14

positive pressure breathing

force air into their lungs by creating a positive pressure in the buccal cavity (push oxygen into lungs) (frogs)

15

negative pressure breathing

expand rib cages by muscular contractions, creating lower pressure inside the lungs

16

Tubes of respiratory system

larynx, glottis, trachea, right and left bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli

17

partial pressure of oxygen depleted blood returning from systemic circulation

partial pressure of 40mm Hg

18

Partial pressure of oxygen in alveoli

105 mm Hg

19

partial pressure of oxygen in blood leaving lungs

100mm Hg

20

partial pressure of CO2 in alveoli

40 mm Hg

21

partial pressure of CO2 in blood leaving lungs

40 mm Hg

22

partial pressure of CO2 in blood entering lungs

46 mm Hg

23

How do lungs move

attached to thoracic cavity through pleural cavity
-during inhalation, thoracic volume increases through contraction of external intercosal muscles (expands rib cage) and contraction of the diaphragm (expands volume of thorax and lungs
--this increases surface area and decrease pressure to below atmospheric pressure

24

tidal volume

volume of air moving in and out of lungs in a person at rest

25

vital capacity

macimum amount of air that can be expired after a forceful respiration

26

Hypoventilation

insufficient breathing, blood has abnormally high CO2 partial pressure

27

Hyperventiliation

excessive breathing, blood has an abnormally low CO2 partial pressure

28

what initiates each breath

neurons in a respiratory control center in the medulla oblongata (autonomic nervous system)
-stimulates external intercostal muscles and diaphragm to contract, causing inhalation

29

what causes exhalation

the neurons stop producing impulses, respiratory muscles relax

30

carbonic acid

produced in the event of a rise in blood CO2, lowers blood pH.

31

COPD

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
-refers to any disorder that obstructs airflow on a long term basis

32

Asthma

COPD
-allergen triggers the release of histamine, causing intense constriction of the bronchi and sometimes suffocation

33

Emphysema

COPD
-alveolar walls break down and the lung exhibits larger but fewer alveoli
-lungs become less elastic
-often caused by smoking

34

Lung cancer

caused mainly by cigarette smoking
-spreads so rapidly its usually in other organs by the time of diagnosis

35

Hmoglobin

consists of 4 polypeptide chains
-each chain is associated with a heme group, which binds with oxygen

36

Bohr shift

pH effect on hemoglobins affinity for 02
-increased CO2 increases H+
-lower pH reduces hemoglobins affinity for O2
-increased temperature has similar effect

37

transportation of CO2

20% of CO2 is bound to hemoglobin
-8% is dissolved in plasma
-72% is in red blood cells