Chapter 53- The Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 53- The Reproductive System Deck (26):
1

2 types of asexual reproduction

-fragmentation
-budding

2

Oviparity

fertilized eggs are deposited outside mothers body to complete their development

3

Ovoviviparity

fertilized eggs are kept within mother to complete development, young obtain food from egg yolk

4

Viviparity

young develop within mother and obtain nourishment from her blood

5

bony fish fertilization

external

6

cartilaginous fish fertilization

internal
-viviparous

7

amphibian fertilization

external

8

fertilization in reptiles

internal
-amniotic egg

9

Bird fertilization

internal
-amniotic egg

10

menstration

females bleed when shedding inner lining of uterus

11

momotremes

oviparous-lay eggs

12

marsupials

viviparous
-give birth to incompletely developed fetus, matures in mothers pouch

13

placentals

viviparous
-retain young in uterus for long period of development

14

2 aspects of reproduction

1. production of gametes
2. transfer of sperm into female

15

seminiferous tubules

sites of sperm production

16

gamete production in males

-2N spermatogonuim divides by mitosis to produce 2 diploid cells
-primary spermatocyte-diploid cell that begins meiosis, undergoes meiosis 1 to produce 2 haplod
-each secondary spermatociyte undergoes second meiosis to produce 2 spermatids
-spermatids differentiate into sperm

17

Sperm Structure

-head-contains nucleus
-body-many mitochondria
-tail-flagellum

18

Epididymis

sperm maturation site

19

Semen

-mixture of seminal fluids and sperm
-made by seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands

20

Hormonal Control

-begins at puberty
-Hypothalamus stimulates anterior pituitary to secrete FSH and LH
-FSH stimulates ertoli cells to make sperm
-LH stimulates leydig cells to secrete testosterone

21

Ovarian Follicles

-inside ovaries
-follicle contains a potential egg cell=primary oocyte and also granulosa cells

22

Granulosa cells

-secrete estrogen at puberty
-triggers mentrual cycle

23

Menstrual cycle

divided into follicular phase, ovulation, luteal phase

24

Follicular phase

-FSH stimulates several follicles to grow
-onlyo ne achieves full maturity
-primary oocyte competes meiosis one
-secondary oocyte begins meiosis 2
-arrested in metaphase 2 until fertilized

25

Ovulation

Stimulation by LH of follicle arrested in metaphase, released into fallopian tube
-if not fertilized, it disintigrates
-if fertilized, completes meiosis 2, makes ovum, makes zygote

26

Luteal Phase

-LH stimulation transforms graafian follicle into corpus luteum
-corpus luteum secretes estrogen and progesterone
-Exerts negative feedback on FSH and LH
-prepares embryo for implantation
-w/o fertilization, corpus luteum degenerates=menstration
-if fertilized, corpus luteum is maintained by hCG until placenta takes over