Chapter 37- Vegetative Plant Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 37- Vegetative Plant Development Deck (17):

what happens to the 2 sperm released into the angiosperm embryo sac

one sperm fertilizes polar nuclei and initiates 3N endosperm development
-other sperm fertilizes the egg to produce a 2n zygote


What does the zygote form into after development

2 things:
small cell divides repeatedly forming a ball of cells=embryo
large cell divides repeatedly forming an elongated structure=suspensor


When does the primary meristem form

differentiate while the plant embryo is still at globular stage


when does the outer protoderm from

develops into dermal tissue that protects the plant


what does the ground meristem become

develops into ground tissue that stores food and water


what does the inner procabium become

develops into vascular tissue that transports water and nutrients


what are three critical stages angiosperms go through during embryogenesis

1.development of food supply
2.development of a seed coat
3.development of fruit surrounding seed


What are 4 important benefits of a seed

1. they maintain dormancy under unfavorable conditions
2. they protect the young plant when it is most vulnerable
3. they provide food for the embryo until it can produce its own food
4. they facilitate dispersal of the embryo


what grows first from the seed

root system, then shoot system


when does germination take place in a seed?

when water and oxygen reach the embryo through cracks in the seed


what are fruits

mature ovaries (carpels)


how are fruits dispersed (5 ways)

-ingestion and transportation by vertebrates
-hitching a ride with hooked spines on animals
-burial in catches by herbivores
-blowing in the wind
-floating and drifting on water


what is germination defined as

the emergence of the radicle (first root) from the seed coat


what does the embryo produce if conditions are right for germination

gibberellic acid
-breaks down the endosperms starch into sugars that are passed to embryo


what does the embryo produce if conditions are not right for embryo production

abscisic acid
-inhabits starch breakdown and establishes dormancy


what happens to shoots in dicots

the hypocotyl (stem) emerges first and then the flowery section rises up to germinate


what happens to monocots during germination

shoot and roots grow at the same time and the embryo stays in the ground