Chapter 31- Fungi Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 31- Fungi Deck (61):
1

What are Fungi

Eukaryotic, Chemoheterotrophs that absorb (rather than ingest) nutrients

2

What does chemoheterotrophic mean?

Organisms who use organic forms of carbon as both an energy source and carbon source

3

How many species of Fungi are there

as many as 1.5 million

4

Whats the largest organism on earth

A fungus

5

How much of the worlds biomass is fungi

25%-33%

6

How much do we depend on fungi

Make up about 1/2 composition on our planet

7

How do Fungi get food

Secrete enzymes on organic material
-Chemical digestion takes place outside of the fungus

8

What is a Saprobe/saprophyte

A fungus that digests dead organic material

9

Fungal cells are diploid or haploid?

Haploid-contain only 1 of each chromosome

10

What are fungal cell walls made of?

Mannan or Chitin

11

What are unicellular Fungal called

Yeasts

12

Mycelial fungi are what?

Multicellular fungi

13

Mycelial cells are what type/called what

They are elongated, fliamentous in shape; called hyphae

14

What are the two types of Hyphae

Coenocytic Hyphae-multinucleate hyphae (non septate hyphae)
Septate Hyphae-porous partitions called septa, separate nuclei and organelles

15

What is the Mycelium

Mass of fungal hyphae in multicellular fungus
-equivalent to fungal body

16

What are the 3 types of Asexual Reproduction

1.) Unicellular-Budding or Binary Fission
2.)Fragmentation-Breaking off into two or more pieces
3.)Spore Formation-Occurs at tips of specialized hyphae or within Sporangia

17

What are the most common means of reproduction among fungi

Spores

18

How do Asexual Spores Form

1N Spore Mother cells undergo mitotic cell division to produce 2, 1N asexual spores

19

What are the tips of hyphae called in Fungi Sexual Reproduction

Gametangia (1N)

20

What do Gametangia do

They are the tips of hyphae in Fungi that fuse with opposite mating types

21

What is Conjugation?

The process of gametangia growing towards each other and fusing

22

What is the zygote and what are the 2 types?

The zygote is the product of conjugation
-can immediately be a diploid cell
-can go through a dikaryon (1N + 1N) stage before parental nuclei form a diploid nucleus

23

How does the Fruiting body in Fungi form?

The diploid or dikaryon zygote undergoes mitosis to produce it.

24

What are the 7 Fungi phyla?

1.) Microsporidia
2.)Blastocladiomycota
3.)Neocallismastigamycota
4.)Chytridiomycota
5.)Glomeromycota
6.)Basidiomycota
7.)Ascomycota

25

Are fungi Monophyletic?

Yes

26

Which phyla are animal parasites?

Microsporidia

27

Do Microsporidia contain Mitochondria?

No

28

A few characteristics of Chytridiomycota?

Aquatic, flagellated fungi
Motile zoospores
have been implicated in amphibian die off

29

Which phylum is not monophyletic?

Zygomycota

30

What are Zygomycetes?

Common bread molds, a few human pathogens, some plant pathogens, most are saprobes

31

Which form of reproduction is most common in Zygomycetes?

Asexual-Sporangiophores have asexual 1N sporangia that release 1N spores

32

Steps of Zygomycete Sexual Reproduction

-Fusion of 1N gametangia at tips of hyphae
-Haploid Nuclei fuse to form dikaryotic zygote nuclei
-Develops into 2N zygosporangium in which zygospore develops
-Meiosis occurs during germination of zygospore and it releases 1N zygospores

33

What Phyla contains the largest percentage of Fungi?

Ascomycota-75%

34

What type of fungi are in Phylum Ascomycota

Bread yeasts, common molds, cup fungi, truffles, and morels

35

What Fungi phylum produces Penicillin?

Ascomycota

36

What is the Phylum Ascomycota named for?

The ascus- a microscopic, saclike reproductive structure within the fruiting body

37

What is an ascocarp

The fruiting body of an Ascomycete

38

What type of Hyphae do Ascomycetes have?

Septate Hyphae

39

What is Karyogamy

The fusion of 1N (dikaryotic) nuclei after conjugation

40

What are conidia

Condidia appear in Ascomycetes
-Allow for asexual reproduction
-they are spore like structures formed at the ends of modified hyphae called conidiophores

41

What Phyla are Yeasts in

They are unicellular ascomycetes

42

How do Yeasts reprdouce

Asexually by budding

43

What are Basidiomycetes

Phylum Basidiomycota
-Most familiar fungi-mushrooms, toadstools, shelf fungi
-most are saprobes

44

What type of Hyphae do Basidiomycetes have

Septate

45

What is the phylum Basidiomycota named for

The basidium-a club shaped sexual reproductive structure in basidiocarp
-karyogami occurs here to form spore mother cell

46

How are basidiospores formed

Karyogami occurs within basidium to form 2N mother cell
-Meiosis follows and produces 4 1N products that become basidiospores

47

What are Mushrooms (basidiocarps) made of

formed entirely of secondary mycelium
-formed from basidiospores after they make a primary mycelium

48

What is another important role (besides decomposition) that fungi play

they recycle important elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous

49

Obligate vs. Facultative symbiosis

Obligate-essential for fungus survival
Facultative-nonessential

50

Parasites

Cause harm to hosts without causing disease

51

What is a Lichen

Symbiotic associations between a fungus and a photosynthetic partner
-cyanobacteria, green algae

52

What Phyla makes up most of the Lichens

Ascomycota

53

Benefits of Lichens

Protect their partners from strong light and desiccation
-play role in soil formation from rock

54

Endophytic Fungi?

Live in intercellular spaces inside plants
-some parasitic, some commensalistic
-some protect their hosts from herbivores by producing toxins

55

What are Mycorrhizae?

Mutualistic relationships between fungi and plants (with root system)
Found on 90% of all vascular plant roots

56

Benefits of Mycorrhizae?

Increase soil contact and absorption for plant

57

What are Ectomycorrhizae

Fungal root partners
-most hosts are forest trees
-Hyphae surround but do not penetrate the root cells

58

What Phylum is associated with Ectomycorrhizae?

Basidiomycota

59

What negative effects do Fungi have on plants

They can be parasitic or Pathogenic
-May secrete substances making food carcinogenic, unpalatable, or poisonous

60

Why are fungul diseases difficult to treat

Because of the close phylogenetic relationship between fungi and animals

61

4 Positive aspects of Fungi

1.) Decomposition
2.)Food source
3.)Source of antibiotics
4.)Fermentation by yeasts