Chapter 50-The Circulatory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 50-The Circulatory System Deck (53):
1

Function of the Circulatory System

1. transport-gases, nutrients, wastes, hormones, antimicrobial cells and proteins
2. Body defense against pathogenic microorgansims
3. Thermoregulation-helps regulate body tempurature
4. Osmoregulation-helps regulate body fluids

2

Components of circulatory system

1. Heart
2. Blood vessels
3. Blood

3

2 types of circulatory systems

closed-excpet for injury, whole blood does not leave blood vessels

4

Open

at times, in certain places, whole blood leaves vessels and contacts tissue

5

Blood

type of connective tissue composed
-fluid matrix called plasma
-formed elements (cells and cell fragments)

6

Plasma proteins

-albumin (7%)
-Globulins (38%)
-fibrinogens (7%)

7

Other solutes in blood

-electrolytes
-nutrients
-gases
-regulatory substances
-waste products

8

Where do blood cells and cell fragments develop from

red bone marrow

9

Hematopoeisis

blood cell production
-produces lymphoid stem cell-lymphocytes
-produces myeloid stem cell-all other blood cells

10

Erythrocytes

red blood cells

11

Hemaglobin

in red blood cells of vertebrates, binds to and transports oxygen and sometimes CO2

12

Leukocytes

White blood cells
-larger than erythrocytes, have nuclei
-protect against foreign microorganisms and materials; protection against cancer

13

Platelets

cell fragments that pinch off from larger cells in the one marrow
-function in the formation of blood clots

14

Sponge circulatory system

circulate water using many incurrent pores and one excurrent one

15

Hydra circulatory system

circulate water through a gastrovascular cavity (also for digestion)

16

Nematode circulatory system

digestive tract can also be used as a circulatory system

17

Invertebrate circulatory system

directly related to sixe, complexity, and lifestyle of the organism

18

Hemolymph

in an open circulatory system, no distinction between circulating and extracellular fluid. Fluid-hemolymph

19

fish have how many heart chambers

2

20

amphibian circulatory system

double circulation (second pumping circuit)
-pulmonary and systemic circulation, similary to mammals
-3 chambered heart (2 atria, 1 ventricle)
-additional oxygen through skin
-incomplete separation of systemic and pulmonary systems

21

Vertebrate circulatory systems

Mammals, birds, and crocodilians
-4 chambered heart

22

Right side of the vertebrate heart

reveices deoxygentated blood from the body and delivers it to the right venrtrivle, which pumps it to the lungs

23

Left side of the vertebrate hearts

left atrium receives oxygentated blood form the lungs and delivers it to the left ventricle, which pumps it through aorta to rest of the body

24

Edocardium

lines chambers, edothelial tissue mostly

25

myocardium

middle, cardiac muscle layer

26

epicardium

outside of heart, connnective tissue and other

27

pericardium

tissue that surrounds heart for protection

28

tricuspid valve

prevents backflow of blood from right ventricle into atria

29

Bicuspid valve

prevents backflow from left ventricle into left atria

30

Pulmonary (semilunar) valve

prevents backflow from pulmonary artery into right ventricle

31

Aortic (semilunar) valve

prevents backflow from aorta into left ventricle

32

Diastole

ventricles relaxed and filling

33

systole

ventricles contracted and pumping

34

Sinoatrial node (SA)

located in wall of right atrium
-SA node acts as pacemaker, initiates an action potential which will cause cardiac muscle to contract

35

EKG

electrocardiogram
-measures hearts electrical activity

36

arteries

carry oxygen rich blood to rest of body
-exception=pulmonary artery

37

veins

carry oxygen depleted blood to lungs/heart
-exception=pulmonary veins

38

steps of circulation

1. deoxygentated blood enters right atria through vena cavas
2. right atria pumps blood to right ventricle
3 right ventricle pumps blood to lungs through pulmonary artery
4. returned to left atria through pulmonary veins
5. oxygentated blood is then pumped to left ventricle, enters body through aorta

39

blood pressure

force of blood/walls of blood vessels, written as a ratio of systolic over diastolic pressure

40

systolic pressure

peeak pressure at which ventricles are contacting

41

diastolic pressure

minimum pressure between heartbeats at which the ventricles are relaxed

42

Normal blood pressure?

120 mm/75mm

43

Hypertension

high blood pressure (diastole over 75 mm)

44

hypotension

low blood pressure (diastole less than 70 mm)

45

arteriols

smaller arteries entering organs and tissues and ending in capillaries

46

venules

smaller veins leaving organs and tissues

47

capillaries

smallest blood vessel, in tissues and organs

48

4 basic tissue layers of arteries and veins

1. endothelium
2. elastic fibers
3. smooth muscle
4. connective tissue

49

the lymphatic system

fluid that does not return to capillaries is returned to circulation by the lymphatic system
-most fluid leaves at arteriole end of capillary and reutrns to venule end

50

Lymphatic system consists of..

lymphatic capillaries, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and lymphatic organs (spleen and thymus)

51

atherosclerosis

accumulation of fatty material within arteries, impedes blood flow

52

autonomic nervous system in relation to heart

modulates heart rhythm and force of contraction

53

Medulla oblongata in relation to heart

modulates heart rate
-norepinephrine, from sympathetic neurons, increases heart rate
-acetylcholine, from parasympathetic neurons, decreases heart rate