Chapter 30- Overview of Green Plants Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 30- Overview of Green Plants Deck (76):
1

What is a plant?

A multicellular, eukaryotic, terrestrial, photoautotroph

2

Land plants shared a common ancestor with what?

Green Algae

3

2 clades of green algae

Chlorophytes-never made it to land
Charophytes-sister to all land plants

4

Name a common Chlorophyte

Volvox

5

What are chlorophytes

Unicellular green alae

6

Describe a few characteristics of volvox

Cells have 2 flagella
-asexual or sexual reproduction

7

What does haplodiplontic mean

alteration of generations between haploid and diploid stages

8

Plant adaptations for terrestrial life

Waxy cuticle and stomata
-water and other material movement using tracheids
-Shift to dominant diploid generation b/c of uv radiation

9

What are tracheophytes

They are plants that have tracheids
-Tracheids-xylem and phloem

10

Moss generation size?

Large gametophyte
Small, Dependent spororphyte

11

Angiosperm generation size?

Small, dependent gametophyte
Large sporophyte

12

Non vascular plants include what Phyla

Bryophyta-mosses
Hepaticophyta-Liverworts
Anthocerotophyta-Hornworts

13

Seedless vascular plants are what clade?

Pterophytes
-ferns
-whisk ferns
-horsetails

14

Seed plants are what clade?

gymnosperms and angiosperms

15

What are the main dispersal means of non seed plants?

Spores

16

What defines a Gymnosperm

A plant that produces seeds in a cone or at the tip of branches

17

What defines an Angiosperm

A plant that produces seeds that form in fruits

18

Describe a Nontracheophytic plant

Live in moist environments or close to water
-tend to be small
-Mycorrhizal associations important in enhancing water uptake

19

Are gametophytes haploid or diploid?

Haploid

20

Are sporophytes haploid or diploid?

Diploid

21

What do Nontracheophyte plants require for fertilization

water for sexual reproduction

22

Mosses are in what phylum

Bryophyta

23

What does the gametophyte generation of Mosses look like

Small, leaflike structures around a stemlike axis
-not true leaves-no vascular tissue

24

What anchors mosses to their substrate?

Rhizoids

25

What are the two types of gametangia in mosses

Archegonia and Antheridia

26

What are Archegonia

Female gametangia in Bryophytes-produces one egg (ovum)

27

What are antheridia

Male gametangia-produce many sperm
-flagellated sperm must swim in water

28

Liverworts are what phylum?

Hepaticophyta

29

What defines Liverworts?

Look like mosses
-form gametangia in umbrella shaped structures

30

What makes Hornworts special

Sporophyte in photosynthetic
-cells have a single large chloroplast
-gametophyte is still dominant

31

Xylem does what?

Conducts water and dissolved upward from the roots

32

Phloem does what?

Conducts sucrose and hormones throughout the plant

33

What are 3 unique tracheophyte structures besides tracheids

Stems-support leaves and reproductive structures
Leaves-Increade surface area for photosynthesis
Roots-Provide transport and support

34

What defines Lycophytes?

Club mosses
-lack seeds (evergreens)
-Superficially resemble true mosses but the sporophyte is dominant

35

Besides mosses, what forms archegonia and antheridia

Pterophytes

36

What do Pterophytes require for Sexual reproduction?

Water for their flagellated sperm

37

What is the most abundant group for seedless vascular plants?

Ferns

38

What is the frond of a fern used for

Photosynthesis occurs here

39

What is a sorus?

a cluster of sporangia on the underside of certain fronds in ferns.

40

How are gametophytes formed from fern sporophytes?

2N spore mother cells within sporangium undergo meiosis to form 1N spores

41

Where do the antheridia and archegonia of ferns form?

In the prothalus, which is a product of mitosis of the 1N gametophyte spores

42

Describe some characteristics of Whisk Ferns

Found in tropics
-sporophyte consists of forking green stems w/o true leaves or roots

43

What is the defining characteristic of Horsetails

Sporophyte consists of ribbed, jointed photosynthetic stems.

44

What did seed plants first evolve from?

Progymnosperms

45

What is the evolutionary advantage of seed plants?

Seed protects and provides food for embryo
-Allows for waiting period for the conditions to be right
-Fruits enhance dispersal

46

All seeds have 3 of the following characteristics

1.) 2N multicellular, embryo plant
2.)Nutritive tissue, food source before photosynthesis begins
3.) Tough, protective seed coat

47

What is a seed

its the embryo, nutritive tissue and protective seed coat in one

48

What does heterosporous mean?

having two kinds of sporangia; spore mother cells and spores

49

What is the megasporangium?

It is the 2N female sporangium tissue. Divides by meitosis to produce 1N megaspores, which divide mitotically to produce egg that will combine with sperm to form zygote + tissues

50

What is the Microsporangia?

The 2N male sporangium tissue-found in male cones or anther of flowers

51

How do pollen grains form?

2N microspore mother cells undergo meiosis to form 1n Microspores, mitotic division makes 1N male gametophyte tissue-pollen grain

52

What are the 4 living groups of Gymnosperms?

Coniferophyta
-Cycadophyta
-Gnetophyta
-Ginkophyta

53

What type of trees are conifers

Most familiar type
-pines, spruces, firs
Found in colder and drier regions of world

54

What type of leaves do conifers have

Thin and needle like
-most are evergreen-dont shed thier leaves

55

What does monoecious mean and what Phyla does it apply to

MEans separate male and female reproductive structures on the same tree (cones)
applies to conifers

56

What makes conifer leaves special

Leaves have thick cuticle and recessed stomata to retard water loss

57

What are Cycads

-Slow growing gymnosperms of tropical and subtropical regions
-resemble palm trees

58

What are Gnetophytes

Only gymnosperms with vessels in their xylem

59

What are Ginkophytes

Gymnosperm with one living species
Flagellated sperm

60

What does Dioecious mean

Male and female reproductive structures form on different trees

61

What defines angiosperms

Plants with flowers and fruits; heterosporous
Ovules are enclosed in diploid tissue at time of pollination

62

What is a whorl

parts of a flower organized into circles

63

What is a pedicel?

The stalk of a flower from which other parts attach

64

What is the calyx?

Outermost whorl of a flower- made up of sepals (green leaves)

65

What is the corolla?

the second whorl of the flower-made of petals

66

What does the third whorl of a flower consist of

made up of the stamens
-each stamen has a pollen bearing anther and a filament

67

What is the innermost whirl of a flower made up of?

Gynoecium
-consists of one or more carpels (stigma, style, ovule, ovary wall)
-female gametophyte

68

What are the levels (from outer to inner) of flower whorls?

Calyx
corolla
third whirl (stamens)
Innermost whorl (female gametophyte)

69

What are the 3 major regions of the carpel?

1.) ovary
2.) stigma
3.) style

70

What is the ovary in a flower

swollen base of a flower containing one or more ovules (where fertilization and seed formation occurs)
-ovary develops into a fruit

71

What is the stigma in a flower

The tip where pollen lands

72

what is the style in a flower

The neck or stalk inside the flower

73

How many megaspores does the mother cell produce in an angiosperm?

4 1N megaspores
-3 disappear
-nucleus of remaining divides mitotically to produce 8 haploid nuclei

74

Where does pollen production occur in angiosperms?

in the anthers
-Diploid microspore mother cells undergo meiosis to produce 4 haploid microspores
-binucleate microspores become pollen grains

75

What do pollen grains develop into upon contact with flower

they develop into a pollen tube that is guided to the embryo sac
-One of the grains divides to produce 2 sperm cells

76

what is double fertilization

1N sperm unites with 1N egg to form diploid 2N zygote
-develops into new sporophyte
Other 1N sperm unites with 2 polar 1N nuclei to make triploid 3N endosperm
-provides nutrients to embryo