Chapter 59-The Biosphere Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 59-The Biosphere Deck (29):
1

Northern Hemisphere winds

counterclockwise, winds curve to the right of their direction of motion (coriolis effect)

2

Southern Hemisphere winds

clockwise, winds curve to the left, blow westward as well as towards the equator

3

elevation

air temperatures fall 6 degrees C for every 1000m increase elevation

4

Biome

major type of ecosystem on land
-defined largely bby sets of regional climatic conditions, climate conditions determine plants and microorganisms, these determine animal life

5

Tropical rain forests

richest ecosystems on land
-1200 species of butterflies in single square mile

6

savanna

-tropical or subtropical grasslands
seregeti of east africa
-transition btwn rain forests and deserts

7

deserts

-unpredictable rainfall
-vegetation sparse, animals adapted to little water availability

8

termperate grasslands or prairies

-rich soils
-grasses with roots that penetrate deep into soil
-north america
-periodic fire
-grazing animals

9

Deciduous forests

-mild but seasonal climates
-temperate evergreen forests

10

Taiga

-think russia
-conifers, bears
-stretch in unbroken circles around globe

11

tundra

-permafrost, moss
-little life
-stretch in unbroken circles around globe

12

Photic zone

area where light penetrates and photosynthesis is possible in freshwater

13

littoral zone

shallows at edge of lake

14

aphotic zone

below light penetration level

15

thermal stratification

warm water is less dense than cold water and tends to float on top, layering is stratification

16

thermocline

-transition layer between warm and cold waters

17

fall overturn

-wind forcing layers of water to mix

18

average depth of ocean

4000-5000 m deep

19

trenches are how deep

11000 m

20

principle primary producer in ocean

phytoplankton

21

open ocean productivity

low

22

oligotrophic ocean

low nutrient levels, biological deserts

23

neritic waters

waters over the continental shelves
-high concentrations of nitrates and other nutrients
-99% of ocean food supply comes from neritic waters

24

Estuaries

shelf ecosystems where fresh water from streams mix with ocean water

25

intertidal habitat

area that is exposed to air at low tide but is under water at high tide

26

salt marshes

in intertidal zone

27

banks and coral reefs

-banks=fishing grounds on shelves
-coral reefs occur in subtropical and tropical latitudes
--defined by stony corals

28

deep sea

seasonless, 2-5 degrees celcius
-food originates from photosynthesis in sunlit waters

29

hydrothermal vent sommunities

large bodied animals
-depend on sulfur oxidizing bacteria
-high temperature