Chapter 36- Plant Form Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 36- Plant Form Deck (34):
1

What does a vascular plant consist of?

a root system
a shoot system

2

What is a root system

-anchors the plant
-absorbs water and ions
-transport, storage, aeration

3

What is a shoot system

-consists of supporting stems, photosynthetic, leaves, and reproductive flowers
-unit consists of internode, node, leaf, and acillary bud
-transport, storage, aeration

4

what are the 3 basic tissue types

1. dermal-outer protective cover
2. ground-function in storage, photosynthesis, and secretion
3. vascular-conducts fluids and dissolved substances (xylem and phloem)

5

What is primary plant growth

increase in the length of a plant, all plants have this

6

what is secondary plant growth

increase in the width of a plant, only occurs in woody plants

7

what does plant growth consist of

-increase in cell number
-increase in cell size
-cell differentiation from generalized to specialized cells

8

Meristems

sites of mitotic cell division in plants

9

Apical Meristems

Located at tips of stems and roots
-give rise to primary tissues which are called primary plant body

10

Lateral Meristems

Found in plants that exhibit secondary growth
-give rise to secondary tissues
-produces secondary vascular tissues-secondary xylem becomes wood and bark

11

Dermal tissue

2 types, epidermis and periderm

12

What is the epidermis

outer protective covering of plant
-makes up cuticle (waxy layer on plant)
-made up of guard cells, trichomes, and root hairs

13

What are guard cells

part of the epidermis of plants
-paired sausage shaped cells, epidermal opening, passageway for oxygen co2 and h2o

14

what are trichomes

cellular or multicellular hairlike growths from the epidermis
-reduce evaporation

15

what are root hairs

increase roots surface area and efficiency of absorption (epidermis cell)

16

what are the 3 types of ground tissue

1. parenchyma-function in storage, photosynthesis, and secretion
2. collenchyma-provide support and protection, allow bening w/o breaking
3.sclerenchyma-provide support and protection, die at maturity

17

what tissue is used for water and inorganic ion transport?

xylem

18

What is the principle food conducting tissue in plants?

phloem

19

what are the 4 regions of roots?

root cap
zone of cell division
zone of cell elongation
zone of cell maturation

20

what is the root cap

functions mainly in protection of the delicate tissues behind it
-also in perception of gravity

21

What is the zone of cell division

derived from rapid divisions of the root apical meristem

22

Zone of elongation

roots lengthen because cells become several times longer than wide

23

Zone of maturation

elongated cells become differentiated into specific cell types

24

Monocot roots?

have epidermis, cortex, endodermis, pericucle, vasuclar tissue, and pith
-example corn
-arranged in a circle around the root

25

Dicot roots

lack pericycle and pith. arranged differently than monocot roots
-example=beans

26

3 modified roots

prop roots-keep plant upright
aerial roots-obtain water from air
food storage roots-store carbohydrates

27

What is the major distinguishing feature between monocot and eudicot stems

organization of the vascular tissue system

28

Monocot vascular arrangement?

scattered throughout ground tissue system

29

eudicot vascular arrangement?

arranged in a ring with internal ground tissue and external ground tissue

30

is there secondary growth in monocots?

no, a vascular cambium develops between the primary xylem and phloem in eudicots but not monocots

31

what is vascular cambium

divides and gives rise to secondary xylem and secondary phloem

32

what are axillary buds

develops into branches with leaves or may form flowers

33

leaves

organs of photosynthesis
expand by cell division and enlargement
growth stops at maturity

34

what differentiates eudicot and monocot leaves

2 types of mesophyll
-palisade-2 rows of chlorenchyma cells
-spongy-loosely arranged cells with many spaces
mesophyll is not differentiated into palisade/spongy layers