Chapter 3 Flashcards Preview

Anthropology > Chapter 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (43)
Loading flashcards...
1

The term habitus means ______.

Behavior that is acquired through individual and social experience

2

A child raised outside of human society and culture would likely be _____.

Completely unable to understand culture

3

One of the earliest definitions of human culture is that “complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, customs, and any other capabilities acquired by man as a member of society” Who introduced this definition?

Sir Edward Tylor

4

Anthropologists consider which of the following to be a characteristic of culture?

A. Practice by a few as one individual
B. Patterned and integrated
C. Static and unchanging over time
D. Made up of innate human tendencies

Patterned and integrated

5

Theoretical perspective is critical in anthropology because ______.

It allows us to explore different perspectives

6

A symbol is ______.

Something that stands for something else

7

Which statement best describes the concept of social birth?

The point where a person is considered a human being and a member of human society

8

Anthropologist consider the concept of humanness and the recognition of human status is _______.

A cultural designation

9

Which statement most accurately defines the concept of enculturation?

It is the process of learning to be a member of a particular cultural group

10

Which characteristic is emphasized in Inuit enculturation?

Cooperation

11

An anthropological perspective that focuses on culture as the principal force in sharing the typical personality of a society is called _____.

Culture and personality theory

12

What is ethnobotany?

The study of the way members of different cultures classify plants

13

The central concern of structural anthropology is ______.

Underlying patterns of thought common to all humanity

14

Which of the following is characteristic of cultural symbols?

They are used to create meaning

15

Some anthropologist argue that football is so popular in America because ______.

It manipulated dangerous and controversial themes in America culture

16

An anthropologist is studying the meaning of meal time in a culture through paintings of family dinners. Which theoretical perspective describes this type of work?

Interpretive and symbolic anthropology

17

Comparing culture to a system implies that ______.

A change in one part of culture will result in changes in other parts of culture

18

What did anthropologists discover about conflict in human societies?

Conflict is cultural universal

19

From the perspective of ecological functionalism, the Hindu taboo on eating beef is _____.

Adaptive to the long-run conditions of drought and crop shortages in India

20

Which theoretical perspective focuses on issues of conflict and struggle within cultures?

Neo-Marxism

21

Norms are best described as

Ideas people in a society share about the way things ought to be done

22

When we compare dominant culture and subcultures within society,it is clear that ______.

Dominant cultures are more powerful than subcultures

23

Norms and values are both ______.

Constantly changing and open to renegotiation

24

The change in the biological structure or lifeway of an individual that allows for better survival is called _______.

Adaptation

25

Cultural adaptation differs from biological adaptation in that the former ______.

Allows human to respond to problems on a relatively immediate basis

26

The ability of humans to change their behavior in response to environmental demands is called _______.

Plasticity

27

According to the text, what has been the most important driver of cultural change in the last 500 years?

The development of world economic system

28

What is the primary innovation?

An object or idea that is genuinely new and different

29

Pure cultures, free from outside influences ____.

Have never existed

30

The process of movement of culture traits from one society to another is called ______.

Diffusion