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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Making a Living Deck (50)
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1

When studying how humans made a living, anthropologists are most interested in ____

Interactions between humans and their environments

2

The earliest human food-getting strategy was _____

Foraging

3

Which of the following terms refers to the period when humans first domesticated plants and began setting in permanent locations?

Agriculture revolution

4

Most humans were engaged in foraging up until about _____ years ago

11,000

5

According to the text, the greatest source of pollution comes from ____

Consumer desires and energy needs in wealthy nations

6

Which of the following terms indicates the yield per person per hour of labor invested?

Efficiency

7

The transition from _____ to _____ is known as the agricultural revolution

Foraging; food production

8

Which statement is true about foraging in human history?

Foraging is characterized by hunting and gathering

9

Which type of subsistence strategy sets restrictive limits on population growth and density?

Foraging

10

Under most conditions, foraging requires ____

Knowledge of the local environment

11

Foraging societies in extreme environments such as the arctic or the desert rely primarily on _____ to sustain their population.

Hunting

12

A major characteristic of the environment which shapes aboriginal Australian survival is the ____

Shortage of water

13

In their adaptation to their harsh environment, the foraging society of Australian aboriginal survived by _____

using a wide variety of foods sources

14

The major areas of pastoralism are found in _____

East Africa, Southwest Asia, and the Subarctic

15

Pastoralists in East Africa primarily raise ____

Cattle

16

Pastoralists in the central Asia primarily raise ______

Yak

17

Pastoral societies rely on _____ to survive and thrive.

Herd growth

18

Which of the following best illustrates transhumant pastoralism?

The male cattle pastoralists of East Africa have two settlements and move their herds between these, while the women stay in the permanent dwelling year-around

19

Horticulture is defined as _____

the use of simple tools in the production of plants for food

20

Like most horticulturalist, the Lua’ traditionally plant _____.

A variety of crops with rotating harvesting seasons

21

The Lua' practice Swidden horticulture by allowing their field to lay fallow for ____ years for every year they are planted

9

22

In Lua' horticulture, women _____

Harvest rice along with men

23

The horticultural cycle of the Lua' indicates that they ___.

Use their highly effective knowledge of their environment for subsistence and cash crops

24

A major change in Lua' subsistence patterns in the last several decades is _____

A growing dependence on a few main crops which they sell to the market

25

The defining characteristic of horticulture is that _____

Fields are not used permanently but remain fallow for some time after being cultivated

26

Agriculture is marked by the use of which of the following?

Plows, draft animals, and irrigation

27

Peasants are most associated with what form of making a living?

Agriculture

28

Which of the following is a culture change that has occurred recently in Musha, Egypt?

Tractors are now used for many purposes

29

Musha, in upper Egypt, is a typical contemporary peasant village in that the peasants _____

Are highly constrained by government intervention

30

Rural cultivators who produce for the subsistence of their households but are also integrated into larger, more complex state societies are called ______

Peasants