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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Stratification Deck (50)
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1

Social stratification is the result of ____.

Unequal distribution of resources

2

Social stratification is most clearly defined by ____.

The distribution of goods in a society

3

The functionalist perspectives of social stratification holds that ___.

The whole society benefits from stratification

4

The view that it is necessary to pay a surgeon a large amount of money so that people will undertake the difficult training necessary to fill the position is a characteristic of _____.

Functional theory

5

Conflict theory holds that the natural condition of a society is ____.

Conflict and change

6

A conflict perspective on social stratification argues that ____.

Social stratification results from the constant struggle for scarce goods and services

7

According to Karl Marx, the basis of social stratification is based on ____.

The relationship of people to the means of production

8

From an anthropologist perspective, wealth is _____.

The accumulation of material resources

9

In pre-Communist China, one group that had very high prestige was ____.

Scholars

10

Which of the following is a primary dimension of stratification?

Prestige

11

An example of an achieve status is ____.

Occupation

12

The overwhelming majority of Americans define themselves as ____.

Middle class

13

According to the text, how many Americans were living in poverty (defined as an annual income of $24,563 or less per family of four) in 2016?

43.1 million

14

Real wealth in the United States is measured as income plus ____.

Assets

15

According to Katherine Newman, job loss in the United States entails not only economic decline but also a decline in ____.

Prestige

16

Which of the following is true of caste system?

People in the same caste tend to have a similar range of occupations.

17

One basic rule of behavior among Indian castes is that ____.

A members of different castes do not eat together

18

In India, lower castes ____.

Are beginning to make collective efforts to improve their position as a group

19

An important change in the Indian caste system provoked by globalization is _____.

The emergence of non-caste-related occupations

20

The Burakumin in Japan are regarded by Japanese society as a(n) _____.

Race

21

According to the text, why is skin color not biologically adequate to distinguish a group of people?

Skin color is continuum of difference

22

Which of the following groups would be described by anthropologist John Obgu as an “involuntary minority” in the United States?

Americans of African descent

23

John Ogbu, a Nigerian anthropologist, studied minority children in schools in the United States and found that ____.

Children from voluntary immigrants groups do better than children from involuntary immigrants groups

24

The opportunities that people have to fulfill their potential in society is known as _____.

Life chances

25

About what percentage of the Brazilian population is composed of individuals of Africa descent?

45%

26

Among Brazilian individuals of African descent, about how many identity themselves as preta (black)?

15%

27

Brazilian national identity is most strongly on ____.

A mix European, African, and indigenous ancestry

28

Which of the following ideas was promoted by Brazilian anthropologist Gilberto Freire?

Brazilian national identity was the result of mixing people of European, African, and indigenous ancestry

29

Compared to the United States, differences in educational achievements by race in Brazil ____.

Are larger

30

In general, the attitude of the Brazilian government toward race has been ____.

To deny that race is a social problem in Brazil