Chapter 3: Evolution and Biological Anthropology (not on exam) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3: Evolution and Biological Anthropology (not on exam) Deck (25)
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1

Evolution

The process of change over time

2

Evolutionary theory

The set of testable hypotheses that assert that living organisms can change over time and share a common ancestry

3

Great Chain of Being

God's creation, everything was harmonious

4

Linneaus

Taxonomy (sorting species out)

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Species

A reproductive community of populations that occupies a specific niche in society

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Taxonomy

A classification

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Genus

Level of Linneaun taxonomy in which different species are grouped together based on their similarities

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Catastrophism

Ancient life forms destroyed by catastrophes and replaced by new, divinely created species

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Transformism

Species arise from others through a long, gradual process
(Lamarckian evolution)

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Uniformitarianism

Present is key to the past (Hutton & Lyell)

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Darwin's theory 1

There is variation
There is competition
Species can produce more offspring than can survive

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Darwin's theory 2

Some variation means more offspring
Best variations passed on
Accumulations of variations creates new species

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Evolutionary fitness

Measure of an organism's contribution to the next generation's gene pool

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Dominant traits

Mask recessive forms in hybrid individuals

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Recessive traits

Appear in later generations

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Gene pool

Alleles, genes, chromosomes, and genotypes within a breeding population

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Genetic evolution

Change in gene frequency in a breeding population from generation to generation

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Genotype

Arrangement of dominant and recessive alleles

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Phenotype

Observable characteristics given by genes

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Mutation
(Increases variation between and within populations)

Creation of a new allele for a gene when a portion of the DNA molecule is suddenly altered

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Natural selection

Variant individuals best suited survive and reproduce

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Gene flow

Exchange of genes that occurs when population experiences sudden expansion due to in-migration from another population

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Genetic drift

Random changes in gene frequencies due to a sudden reduction in population size

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Melanin

Primary determinant of skin colour

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Speciation

The process by which new species emerge