Chapter 12: Politics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12: Politics Deck (19)
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1

Internalized controls

Shame and guilt cultures

2

Externalized controls

Sanctions

3

State

Centralized power
Industrial food production

4

Chiefdom

Kin-based social status
Centralized power

5

Tribe

Kin-based social status
Non-intensive food production
Decentralized power (big man)

6

Band

Egalitarian
Decentralized power
Food collectors

7

Minority groups

Subordinate groups with less power and less secure access to resources.

8

Majority groups

Superordinate, dominant or controlling groups.

9

Hierarchal stratification

People do not have equal access to resources: Survival, power, and prestige.

10

Class

A ranked group within a hierarchically stratified society.
(Achieved status)

11

Caste

A ranked group within a hierarchically stratified society.
(Ascribed status)

12

Hypodescent

Children of a union between members of different groups are automatically places in the minority group.

13

Colorism (Nicaragua)

A system of social identities negotiated situationally along a continuum of skin colours between white and black.

14

"Race" in Brazil

Less exclusionary categories allow individuals to change racial classification.

15

Naturalising discourses

The deliberate representation of particular identities as if they were the result of biology or nature.

16

Colonialism

Political, social, economic, and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended period of time.

17

Genocide

Deliberate elimination of a group through mass murder.

18

Cultural genocide

Destruction of an ethnic group's culture.

19

Gender stratification

Refers to the social ranking, where men have higher statuses than women.