Chapter 3: perception, attribution and diversity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3: perception, attribution and diversity Deck (35)
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1

What is perception?

to provide order and meaning to the environment

The process of interpreting the messages of our senses

2

what do people base their actions on, but it is not reality itself?

the interpretation of reality that their perceptual system provides

3

what are the components of perception?

perceiver

target

situational context

4

what do the components of perception do to the perceiver?

Each component influences the perceiver’s impression or interpretation of the target

5

what are the factors that influence the perceiver?

experience

motivational state

emotional state

6

what are the steps of the Bruner’s Model of the Perceptual Process

1. Perceiver encounters an unfamiliar target,

the perceiver is very open to the informational cues in the target and the situation.

2. The perceiver will actively seek out cues to resolve ambiguity.

3. As the perceiver encounters some familiar cues, a crude categorization of the target is made.

4. The search for cues then becomes less open and more selective.

5. The perceiver will search for cues that confirm the categorization of the target.

7

what are the characteristics of Bruner’s Model of the Perceptual Process

Perception is selective

Perceptual constancy

Perceptual consistency

8

Basic Biases in Person Perception

Primacy Effect

Recency Effect

Central traits

Implicit Personality Theories

Projections

Stereotyping

9

primacy effect

first impressions

10

recency effect

last impressions

11

central traits

see only what you want to see

12

projections

Attribution of own thoughts / feelings on another

13

stereotyping

Categorizing/generalizing someone on the basis of the group that person belongs to

14

what is attribution?

the process by which we assign causes/motives to explain people’s behaviour

15

what are the two plausible cause of behavior ?

Dispositional factors (internal)

Situational factors (external)

16

Dispositional factors (internals)

Intelligence, greed, friendliness, or laziness

17

Situational factors (external)

Bad weather, good luck, proper tools, or poor advice

18

what are the three attribution questions?

1. Does the person engage in the behaviour regularly and consistently? (Consistency cues)

2. Do most people engage in the behaviour, or is it unique to this person? (Consensus cues)

3. Does the person engage in the behaviour in many situations, or is it distinctive to one situation? (Distinctiveness cues)

19

what are the three biases in attribution?

Fundamental attribution error

Actor-observer effect

Self-serving bias

20

Actor-observer effect

things go wrong, I blame it on situation

observer attributes my behavior to dispositional factors

21

Self-serving bias

taking credit when you are successful

denying failures

22

what is workforce diversity?

differences among recruits and employees in characteristics, such as gender, race, age, religion, cultural background, physical ability, or sexual orientation

23

what influences a perceiver's perceptions?

experiences lead to expectation

motions influence perception

24

what is perceptual defense?

Tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions

People often “see what they want to see” & “hear what they want to hear”

Our perceptual system works to ensure we do not see or hear things that are threatening

25

can a perception change if a situation changes, but the perceiver and the target perceived remain the same?

yeee

it can change alongside the situation

26

does the perceiver use all the information provided by the target?

nah boy

he can't, or doesn't

27

what type of target are susceptible to interpretation and the addition of meaning

Ambiguous targets

28

from three important characteristics of Bruner's perceptual process, what does it mean for perception to be selective?

Perceivers don’t use all the available cues

29

from three important characteristics of Bruner's perceptual process, what does perceptual constancy mean?

The tendency for the target to be perceived in the same way over time & across situations.

30

from three important characteristics of Bruner's perceptual process, what does perceptual consistency mean?

We want things to be the same.

Tendency to select, ignore, and distort cues so that they fit together to for a homogeneous picture of the target