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how can money be a motivator?

it satisfy a bunch of needs

it is clearly tied with motivation

you can buy the stuff you want


what type of motivator is money? (the type)

it is extrinsic motivation

it is controlled


how can job design be a motivator?

what does it represent?

job design as a motivator represents an attempt to capitalize on intrinsic motivation

includes job scope


what is the goal of job design so that it would be an intrinsic motivator?

to identify the characteristics that make some tasks more motivating than others

to capture these characteristics in the design of jobs


what is job scope?

the breadth and d epth of a job


breadth of a job

the number of different activities performed on a job


Depth of a job

the degree of control a worker has over how work tasks are


what is the Job Characteristics Model

model conducting job enrichment to analyze what needs to be improved




what are the characteristics of the Job Characteristics Model

Skill Variety

Task Identity

task significance




Skill Variety

degree of opportunity to do a variety of different activities using various skills and talents


task identity

job involves doing a complete piece of work

(Beginning → End)


task significance

job has a substantial impact on other people


autonomy in the job

degree of freedom to schedule one’s own work activities and decide work procedures.



information about the effectiveness o f one’s work performance


core job characteristics lead to what? (1)

psychological states (2)


psychological states lead to what? (2)

outcomes (3)


what is job enrichment?

design of jobs to enhance intrinsic motivation

enhance the quality of working life

enhance job involvement

manipulating one or more of the five job characteristics model to make the job more interesting to the employee


how can you enrich your job?

Combining tasks

Establishing external client relationships and internal client relationships

Reducing supervision or reliance on others

Forming working teams

Making feedback more direct


what are the negative effects of job enrichment?

Demand for rewards

Union resistance

supervisory resistance

Lack of desire or skill


management by objectives (MBO) (goal setting theory)

whats the use

to faciliate :

1. Goal establishment and Goal accomplishment

2. Employee development


how does well designed MBO program function?

objectives for the organization as a whole are developed by top management

these are diffused down through the organization with the MBO process


what are the steps of the process of MBO?

1. Objectives for the organization as a whole are developed by top management and diffused down through the organization.

2. Organizational objectives are translated into specific behavioural objectives for individual members.

3. The nature of the interaction between managers and individual workers in an MBO program is important

4. after the interactions finish, the cycle is repeated


what are the steps to the MBO manger-employye interactions?

1. The manager meets with individual workers to develop and agree on employee objectives

can include job performance and personal development objectives.

2. There are periodic meetings to monitor employee progress in achieving objectives.

3. An appraisal meeting is held to evaluate the extent to which the agreed upon objectives
have been achieved

4. The MBO cycle is repeated


what does research show about MBO programs?

result in productivity gains


what are the factors associated with the failure of MBO programs?

Lack of commitment from top management

Overemphasis on measurable objectives at the expense of more qualitative objectives

Excessive short-term orientation

Performance review becomes focuses more on punishing employees who messed up


Alternative working schedules (AWS) as motivators for a diverse workforce

what is this?

purpose is to meet diverse workforce needs and promote job satisfaction

can also facilitate recruitment and reduce absenteeism and turnover


what are the most common alternative working schedules?

flex time

compressed workweek

job and work sharing



what is flex time?

arrival and quitting times are flexible

Intended to meet the needs of a diverse work-force


when is flex time mostly implemented?

in the gym after chest day

nah but fr

most frequently implemented in office environments


what does the research show about flex time

Employees prefer it compared to fixed hours

Work attitudes are more positive

A positive effect on productivity, job satisfaction, and satisfaction with work schedule

lower employee absenteeism