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1

Perceptual defence is

A) the tendency to attribute one's own thoughts and feelings to others.

B) the process of interpreting messages of our senses to provide meaning.

C) the tendency to generalize about people and ignore variations between individuals.

D) the process by which motives are assigned to explain people's behaviour.

E) the tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions

E) the tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions

2

Which of the following statements may indicate projection by the speaker?

A) "I didn't land the contract because the competition was just too good."

B) "I would never assign a woman to that sales territory."

C) "I don't steal from the company but I'm sure that others do."

D) "Telling a white lie to clinch a sale is perfectly ethical."

E) "Most of my sales staff think like I think."

E) "Most of my sales staff think like I think."

3

Which of the following statements is indicative of an implicit personality theory on the part of the speaker?

A) "Introverts are honest."

B) "Roger is aggressive."

C) "Teenagers drive more recklessly than seniors."

D) "Women make bad managers."

E) "Accountants are intelligent."

A) "Introverts are honest."

4

My perceptions of people are strongly influenced by how kind they are to others. Which concept explains my reaction?

A) Central tendency

B) Projection

C) Similar-to-me effect

D) Primacy effect

E) Central trait

E) Central trait

5

"You're just like me. I despise you." Which perceptual tendency might the speaker be revealing?


A) Actor-observer effect

B) Central Trait

C) Self-serving bias

D) Projection

E) Similar-to-me effect

D) Projection

6

The chairperson opened the meeting by saying "I'm sure you all agree with me that . . ." What perceptual
phenomenon might the speaker be exhibiting?


A) Similar-to-me effect

B) Projection

C) Implicit personality theory

D) Stereotyping

E) Fundamental attribution error

B) Projection

7

Driving home from an auto repair shop, you find that the repair you just paid for wasn't done properly. Which
of the following would increase your tendency to blame the mechanic's error on dispositional factors?

A) This mechanic has done poor repairs on your car twice before.

B) Several friends told you that this mechanic was excellent.

C) When you picked up the car, the shop manager said that the mechanic had gone home early because he
was injured on the job.

D) You had authorized the mechanic to use reconditioned parts instead of new ones.

E) You have never had a car repair done right the first time by any mechanic

A) This mechanic has done poor repairs on your car twice before

8

Which is a potential example of the fundamental attribution error?

A) Rodney defended his boss's embezzlement by pointing out that he was under severe marital stress at the
time of the incident.

B) Tom realized that most of his crew failed to get to work because of the big snowstorm.

C) Nancy explained her department's success by describing her boss as brilliant.

D) John explained his failure to land the big account by saying that the competing firm had a better product.

E) Susan acknowledged that her company's sales growth was largely due to the booming economy.

C) Nancy explained her department's success by describing her boss as brilliant.

9

We may rely on dispositional explanations when making judgments about the behaviour of other people
because

A) we have a tendency to give others the benefit of doubt when they offend us.

B) we don't appreciate how their behaviour can vary in other situations.

C) we are making excuses for our own behaviour.

D) we have a tendency to project our own thoughts and feelings on others.

E) we realize that circumstances beyond their control can cause them to act the way they do.

B) we don't appreciate how their behaviour can vary in other situations.

10

Gender stereotypes are least likely to have a negative impact on women

A) when they are applying for a job.

B) when they are seeking a promotion.

C) when they ask to attend a professional development conference.

D) when their performance is being evaluated by their boss.

E) when a rater or evaluator has little information about their qualifications.

D) when their performance is being evaluated by their boss.

11

The self-serving attributional bias

A) suggests that we will provide dispositional reasons for our failures.

B) suggests that we will provide situational reasons for our successes.

C) may lead one to attribute their own thoughts and feelings to others.

D) may lead one to provide phony compliments when things go well for others.

E) may involve providing excuses for one's own behaviour.

E) may involve providing excuses for one's own behaviour.

12

"I don't really like you very much, and this causes me to overlook a number of your good qualities." This is an
example of

A) central tendency.

B) implicit personality theory.

C) stereotyping.

D) the halo effect.

E) harshness.

D) the halo effect.

13

The contrast effect means that the perceiver

A) compares target people with her own qualities.

B) favours target people who are different from herself.

C) will generalize about people in a given social category and ignore variations among them.

D) rejects target people who are different from herself.

E) exaggerates differences among target people.

E) exaggerates differences among target people.

14

The professor who gives all C's to his class is committing

A) harshness.

B) central tendency.

C) central trait bias.

D) halo.

E) self-serving bias.

B) central tendency.

15

what is central tendency

Central tendency is the inclination of managers to rate all their subordinates with an “average” score during performance appraisal

leaving out the extremes

16

Research shows that the employment interview


A) is a totally invalid selection technique.

B) is most effective when the interviewer does not ask personal questions.

C) overweights positive information.

D) is free of perceptual biases.

E) is most valid when the interviewer conducts it in an unstructured format.

B) is most effective when the interviewer does not ask personal questions.

17

Which is a potential example of the fundamental attribution error?

A) Shawn thought that her secretary was the kindest person she had ever met.

B) Pam explained that late report by noting that she wasn't familiar with the new software.

C) Rich figured that the team was late because of congested air traffic over Atlanta.

D) Joe attributed the car accident to slippery pavement.

E) Cleo mistook the female vice-president for a secretary.

A) Shawn thought that her secretary was the kindest person she had ever met.

18

when we invoke the halo effect, we tend not to see:

the differences between people

19

Employment interviewers tend to

A) avoid making comparisons between the current candidate and those previously interviewed.

B) underweight positive information about the applicant.

C) predict applicant success better with an unstructured interview than with a guided interview.

D) underweight negative information about the applicant.

E) have an easy perceptual task.

B) underweight positive information about the applicant.

20

Subjective performance measures are called "subjective" because

A) they are a product of the perceptions of an observer.

B) they focus attention directly on the interview subject.

C) all performance measures are subjective.

D) bosses and employees frequently disagree on the ratings.

E) it is impossible to measure performance objectively.

A) they are a product of the perceptions of an observer.

21

The Devious Employment Agency uses a trick to get companies to hire its candidates. If it only has a marginal
candidate, it sends over two real duds before sending over this marginal person.

Which perceptual reaction is the Devious manager relying on to get the marginal candidate hired?

A) Actor-observer effect

B) Contrast effect

C) Halo effect

D) Leniency

E) Central trait A

B) Contrast effect

22

A manager is completing performance evaluations of his employees. Unwittingly, he allows his perceptions of
their attendance to colour his ratings of many specific characteristics, including their quality and quantity of work. Thus, those with poor attendance invariably get poor ratings.

What's happened?


A) Contrast effects

B) Knowledge-of-predictor bias

C) Similar-to-me effect

D) Harshness

E) Halo effect

E) Halo effect

23

Trust perceptions toward management are based on perceptions of

A) ability, honesty, and support

B) ability, fairness, and support

C) ability, benevolence, and support

D) benevolence, integrity, and support

E) ability, benevolence, and integrity

E) ability, benevolence, and integrity

24

Which of the following factors contribute to perceived organizational support?

A) supervisor support, fairness, rewards, opportunities for advancement

B) fairness, rewards, pay, job security

C) supervisor support, job security, recognition, job conditions

D) fairness, rewards, pay, job conditions

E) supervisor support, fairness, rewards, job conditions

E) supervisor support, fairness, rewards, job conditions