Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (31):
the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others. Most often described in terms of measurable traits that a person exhibits, such as shy, aggressive, submissive, lazy, ambitious, loyal, and timid
the most common/easiest means of measuring personality with which individuals evaluate themselves on a series of factors. Individual is reporting all the data about themselves.
an independent person will observe and monitor behavior and record it in the survey. These reports tend to more accurate but difficult to administer and more costly.
factors determined at conception.
characteristics of an individual’s behavior, including shy, aggressive, submissive, lazy, ambitious, loyal, and timid, is exhibited in a large number of situations.
Myeres-Briggs Type Indicator
: the most widely used personality assessment instrument in the world
outgoing, sociable, and assertive
quiet and shy
practical and prefer routine and order. Focus on detail.
rely on unconscious processes and look at the “big picture”
use reason and logic to handle problems
rely on their personal values and emotions.
want control and prefer their world to be ordered and structured
flexible and spontaneous
Problem with Briggs
it forces a person into either one type or another. There is no in-between, though people can be both.
Captures our comfort level with relationships. Extraverts tend to be gregarious, assertive, and sociable. Introverts ten to be reserved, timid, and quiet.
Refers to an individual’s propensity to defer to others. Highly agreeable people are cooperative, warn, and trusting. People who score low on agreeableness are cold, disagreeable, and antagonistic.
A measure of reliability. A highly conscientious person is responsible, organized, dependable, and persistent. Those who score low on this dimension are easily distracted, disorganized and unreliable
Often labeled by its converse, neuroticism, taps a person’s ability to withstand stress. People with positive emotional stability tend to be calm, self-confident, and secure. Those with high negative scores tend to be nervous, anxious, depressed, and insecure
Openness to experience
Addresses range of interests and fascination with novelty. Extremely open people are creative, curious, and artistically sensitive. Those at the other end are conventional and find comfort in the familiar.
the degree to which people like/dislike themselves (relate to job satisfaction).
describes a person who tends to be emotionally distant and believes that the ends justify the means. They tend to have a competitive drive and a need to win. They can be very persuasive in situations where they are direct interaction with minimal rules and people are distracted by emotions.
describes a person who has a grandiose sense of self-importance, requires excessive admiration, has a sense of entitlement, and is arrogant
refers to an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors.
Type A personality
Aggressively involved in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more and more in les and less time, and, if required to do so, against the opposing efforts of other things or other persons. Competitive, urgent, and driven.
identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs, compared to others who passively react to situation.
represent basic, enduring convictions that "a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence."
refers to desirable end-states. These are the goals a person would like to achieve during his life.
refers to preferable modes of behavior, or means of achieving the terminal values.
Personality-Job Fit Theory
the effort to match job requirements with personality characteristics (John Hollands).