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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (32):
1

Formal Groups

one defined by the organization’s structure with designated work assignments establishing tasks. The behaviors team members should engage in are stipulated by and directed toward organizational goals.

2

Group

two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives.

3

Informal Group

neither formally structured nor organizationally determined. They are natural formations in the work environment that appear in response to the need for social contract.

4

Command Group

determined by the organization chart. It is composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager. (formal)

5

Task Group

also organizationally determined, represents individuals working together to complete a job task. Their boundaries are not limited to its immediate hierarchical superior; the group can cross command relationships. (formal)

6

Interest Group

employees who band together to have their vacation schedules altered, to support a peer who has been fired, or seek improved working conditions have formed a united body to further their common interest. (informal)

7

Friendship Group

social alliances, which frequently extend outside the work situation that can be based on common age or ethnic heritage, etc. (informal)

8

Why people join groups?

1. Security
2. Status
3. Self-Esteem
4. Affiliation
5. Power
6. Goal Achievement

9

5 stage model

characterizes groups as proceeding through the distinct stages of forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.

10

forming

characterized by a great deal of uncertainty about the group’s purpose, structure, and leadership. This stage is complete when members have begun to think of themselves as part of the group

11

Storming

one of intra conflict. Members accept the existence of the group but resist the constraints it imposes on individuality. There is conflict over who will control the group. When this stage is complete there will be relatively clear hierarchy of leadership within the group

12

Norming

close relationships develop and the group demonstrates cohesiveness. There is a strong sense of group identity and camaraderie. It is complete when the group structure solidifies and the group has assimilated a common set of expectations of what defines correct member behavior.

13

Performing

the structure is fully functional and accepted. Group energy has moved from getting to know and understand each other to performing the task at hand.

14

Adjourning

preparation for disbanding.

15

Group Properties

Roles
Norms
Status
Size
Cohesiveness

16

Role

a set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit.

17

Role Perception

our view of how we’re supposed to act in a given situation

18

Role Expectation

the way others believe you should act in a given context.

19

Role COnflict

when compliance with one role requirement may make it difficult to comply with another.

20

Norms

acceptable standards of behavior shared by their members that express what they ought and ought not to do under certain circumstances.

21

Reference Groups

a person is aware of other members, defines himself as a member or would like to be a member, and feels group members are significance to him. The implication, then, is that all groups do not impose equal conformity pressures on their members.

22

Deviant Workplace Behavior

voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and, in doing so, threatens the well being of the organization or its members. It is most likely to flourish where it’s supported by group norms.

23

According to Status Characteristic Theory, status is from (3)

• The power a person wields over others
• A person’s ability to contribute to a group’s goals
• An Individual’s personal characteristics

24

Social Loafing

he tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than alone.

25

Cohesiveness

the degree to which members are attracted to each other and motivated to stay in the group. It is important because it affects group productivity.

26

Strengths of Group Decision making

1.more complete information and knowledge
2.increased diversity of views
3.acceptance of a solution

27

Weakness of Group Decision making

1.They are time consuming.
2.Conformity pressures
3.Group discussion can be dominated by one or a few members.
4.Group decisions suffer from ambiguous responsibility

28

how to be effective and efficient (3)

speed
creativity
acceptance

29

Group Think

relates to norms. It describes situations in which group pressures for conformity deter the group from critically appraising unusual, minority, or unpopular views. It is a disease that attacks many groups and can dramatically hinder their performance

30

Group Shift

describes the way, in discussing a given set of alternatives and arrives at a solution, group members tend to exaggerate the initial position they hold.

31

Brainstorming

can overcome the pressures of conformity that dampen creativity by encouraging any and all alternatives while withholding criticism.

32

Nominal Group Technique

restricts discussion or interpersonal communication during the decision making process, hence the term nominal