Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (32):
one defined by the organization’s structure with designated work assignments establishing tasks. The behaviors team members should engage in are stipulated by and directed toward organizational goals.
two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives.
neither formally structured nor organizationally determined. They are natural formations in the work environment that appear in response to the need for social contract.
determined by the organization chart. It is composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager. (formal)
also organizationally determined, represents individuals working together to complete a job task. Their boundaries are not limited to its immediate hierarchical superior; the group can cross command relationships. (formal)
employees who band together to have their vacation schedules altered, to support a peer who has been fired, or seek improved working conditions have formed a united body to further their common interest. (informal)
social alliances, which frequently extend outside the work situation that can be based on common age or ethnic heritage, etc. (informal)
Why people join groups?
6. Goal Achievement
5 stage model
characterizes groups as proceeding through the distinct stages of forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.
characterized by a great deal of uncertainty about the group’s purpose, structure, and leadership. This stage is complete when members have begun to think of themselves as part of the group
one of intra conflict. Members accept the existence of the group but resist the constraints it imposes on individuality. There is conflict over who will control the group. When this stage is complete there will be relatively clear hierarchy of leadership within the group
close relationships develop and the group demonstrates cohesiveness. There is a strong sense of group identity and camaraderie. It is complete when the group structure solidifies and the group has assimilated a common set of expectations of what defines correct member behavior.
the structure is fully functional and accepted. Group energy has moved from getting to know and understand each other to performing the task at hand.
preparation for disbanding.
a set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit.
our view of how we’re supposed to act in a given situation
the way others believe you should act in a given context.
when compliance with one role requirement may make it difficult to comply with another.
acceptable standards of behavior shared by their members that express what they ought and ought not to do under certain circumstances.
a person is aware of other members, defines himself as a member or would like to be a member, and feels group members are significance to him. The implication, then, is that all groups do not impose equal conformity pressures on their members.
Deviant Workplace Behavior
voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and, in doing so, threatens the well being of the organization or its members. It is most likely to flourish where it’s supported by group norms.
According to Status Characteristic Theory, status is from (3)
• The power a person wields over others
• A person’s ability to contribute to a group’s goals
• An Individual’s personal characteristics
he tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than alone.
the degree to which members are attracted to each other and motivated to stay in the group. It is important because it affects group productivity.
Strengths of Group Decision making
1.more complete information and knowledge
2.increased diversity of views
3.acceptance of a solution
Weakness of Group Decision making
1.They are time consuming.
3.Group discussion can be dominated by one or a few members.
4.Group decisions suffer from ambiguous responsibility
how to be effective and efficient (3)
relates to norms. It describes situations in which group pressures for conformity deter the group from critically appraising unusual, minority, or unpopular views. It is a disease that attacks many groups and can dramatically hinder their performance
describes the way, in discussing a given set of alternatives and arrives at a solution, group members tend to exaggerate the initial position they hold.
can overcome the pressures of conformity that dampen creativity by encouraging any and all alternatives while withholding criticism.