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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (27):
1

Perception

process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment

2

Factors that influence perception

perceiver
target
situation

3

Attribution Theory

tries to explain the ways in which we judge people differently depending on the meaning we attribute to a given behavior

4

3 factors of attribution

Distinctiveness
Consensus
Consistency

5

Fundamental Attribution Error

Underestimate external, over estimate internal

6

Self-Serving Bias

put blame on external, when it is internal problem.

7

Selective Perception

a perceptual filtering process based on interests, background, and attitude. May allow observers to draw unwarranted conclusions from an ambiguous situation.

8

Halo Effect

draw a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic, such as intelligence, sociability, or appearance.

9

Contrast Effect

our reaction to a person is influenced by other persons we have recently encountered

10

Stereotyping

judge someone on the basis of our perception of a group which she belongs.

11

Perception influences

aware the problem exist
evaluation and interpretation
bias of analysis and conclusion

12

Rational Decision-Making Model (6)

1.define problem
2. identify the decision criteria
3. allocate weights to the criteria
4. develop alternatives
5. evaluate alternatives
6. Select best alternative

13

Bounded Rationality

construct simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity

14

Intuitive decision making

an unconscious process created from distilled experience.

15

Overconfidence Bias

you believe to much in your own ability to make good decisions

16

Anchoring Bias

when you make decisions based on the information you received first and not on the new information received.

17

Confirmation Bias

you only use facts that support your decision

18

Availability Bias

emphasizes information that is more readily at hand, information that is recent and viid

19

Escalation of Commitment

occurs when there is an increasing commitment to a decision in spite of evidence that is the wrong decision

20

Risk Aversion

the decision maker has a tendency to prefer a sure thing over a risky outcome.

21

Hindsight Bias

occurs after an outcome is already known and then believing it could have been accurately predicted before hand.

22

3 ethical theories

Utilitarian
Rights
Justice

23

Utilitarian

provide the greatest good for the greatest number. Decisions are based on the outcome of the solution.

24

Rights

make decisions consistent with fundamental liberties and privileges in an attempt to protect the basic rights of individuals.

25

Justice

impose and enforce rules fairly and impartially so that there is equal distribution of benefits and costs. imposes rules in a fair and impartial manner and equitably distributes benefits and costs

26

Three Component Model of Creativity

Expertise
Creative thinking skills
Intrinsic Task motivation

27

Three Component Model of Creativity

Expertise
Creative thinking skills
Intrinsic Task motivation