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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (39):
1

Motivation

the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal

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3 elements of Motivation

intensity, direction, and persistence.

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Who created the Hierarchy of Needs theory

Maslow

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Hierarchy of Needs theory

within every human being there exists a hierarchy of 5 needs

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5 needs of hierarchy of needs theory

physiological
safety
social
esteem
self-actualization

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who created Theory X and Y

McGregor

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Theory X and Y

two distinct views of human beings, on negative (x) and one positive (y)

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Theory X

managers believe employees inherently dislike work and must therefore be directed or even coerced into performing it.

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TheoryY

managers assume employees can view work as being a natural place to rest or play, and therefore the average person can learn to accept, and even seek, responsibility

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Creator of Two Factor Theory

herzburg

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Two Factor Theory

an individual's relationship to work as basic and that attitude toward work can very well determine success or failure

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Hygiene factors

quality of supervisions, pays, company policies, physical working conditions, relationships with others, and job security. When adequate people will not be dissatisfied; neither will they be satisfied

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Creator of Theory of needs

McClelland

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3 needs of theory of needs

achievement
power
affliction

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Self Determination Theory

people prefer to feel they have control over their actions, so anything that makes a previously enjoyed task feel more like an obligation than a freely chosen activity will undermine motivation

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Cognitive Evaluation Theory

hypothesizes that extrinsic rewards (pay) will reduce intrinsic interest in a task

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Who created Goal Setting theory

LOCKE

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Goal Setting theory

The idea behind this theory is that goals, which are specific and effectively difficult, can lead to higher performance if they include self-generated feedback.

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3 factors that influence goal setting theory

goal commitment
task characteristics
national culture

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Management by Objectives (MBO)

emphasizes participative set goals that are tangible, verifiable, and measureable: Goal specificity, participation in decision-making, an explicit time period, and performance feedback. Converts overall organization objectives into specific objectives for work units and individuals

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four ingredients of MBO

• Goal specificity
• Participation in decisions making
• An explicit time period
• Performance feedback

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Self Efficacy Theory

refers to an individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. The higher your self-efficacy

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creator of self efficacy theory

BANDURA

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four ways to increase self efficacy theory

enactive mastery
vicarious modeling
verbal persuasion
arousal

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Enactive Mastery

Gaining relevant experience with the task of job

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Vicarious Modeling

becoming more confident because you see someone else doing the task

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verbal persuasion

Becoming more confident because someone convinces you that you have the skills necessary to be successful.

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Pygmalion effect

a form of self-fulfilling prophecy in which believing something can make it true. (Galatea effect)

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Arousal

leads to an energized state, which drives a person to a complete task

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Equity Theory

Employees perceive what they get from a job situation (salary levels, raises, recognition) in relationship to what they put into it (effort, experience, education, competence) and then compare their outcome-input ration with that of relevant others

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Distributive Justice

the employee’s perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals (how much we should be paid relative to what we think we should be paid).

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Organizational Justice

a larger perception of what is fair in the workplace. Employees perceive their organizations as just when they believe the outcomes they have received and the way they received them are fair.

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Procedural Justice

the perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards.

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Interactional Justice

an individual’s perception of the degree to which she is treated with dignity, concern, and respect.

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Expectancy Theory

the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of our exceptions of a given outcome and its attractiveness. Employees will be motivated to exert a high level of effort when they believe it will lead to a good performance appraisal, which will lead to rewards.

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Creator of Expectancy Theory

VROOMS

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Effort Performance relationship

The probability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance

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Performance Reward Relationship

The degree to which the individual believes performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome

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Rewards-Personal Goals Relationship

The degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individuals personal goals or needs and the attractiveness of those potential rewards for the individual