Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (39):
the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal
3 elements of Motivation
intensity, direction, and persistence.
Who created the Hierarchy of Needs theory
Hierarchy of Needs theory
within every human being there exists a hierarchy of 5 needs
5 needs of hierarchy of needs theory
who created Theory X and Y
Theory X and Y
two distinct views of human beings, on negative (x) and one positive (y)
managers believe employees inherently dislike work and must therefore be directed or even coerced into performing it.
managers assume employees can view work as being a natural place to rest or play, and therefore the average person can learn to accept, and even seek, responsibility
Creator of Two Factor Theory
Two Factor Theory
an individual's relationship to work as basic and that attitude toward work can very well determine success or failure
quality of supervisions, pays, company policies, physical working conditions, relationships with others, and job security. When adequate people will not be dissatisfied; neither will they be satisfied
Creator of Theory of needs
3 needs of theory of needs
Self Determination Theory
people prefer to feel they have control over their actions, so anything that makes a previously enjoyed task feel more like an obligation than a freely chosen activity will undermine motivation
Cognitive Evaluation Theory
hypothesizes that extrinsic rewards (pay) will reduce intrinsic interest in a task
Who created Goal Setting theory
Goal Setting theory
The idea behind this theory is that goals, which are specific and effectively difficult, can lead to higher performance if they include self-generated feedback.
3 factors that influence goal setting theory
Management by Objectives (MBO)
emphasizes participative set goals that are tangible, verifiable, and measureable: Goal specificity, participation in decision-making, an explicit time period, and performance feedback. Converts overall organization objectives into specific objectives for work units and individuals
four ingredients of MBO
• Goal specificity
• Participation in decisions making
• An explicit time period
• Performance feedback
Self Efficacy Theory
refers to an individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. The higher your self-efficacy
creator of self efficacy theory
four ways to increase self efficacy theory
Gaining relevant experience with the task of job
becoming more confident because you see someone else doing the task
Becoming more confident because someone convinces you that you have the skills necessary to be successful.
a form of self-fulfilling prophecy in which believing something can make it true. (Galatea effect)
leads to an energized state, which drives a person to a complete task
Employees perceive what they get from a job situation (salary levels, raises, recognition) in relationship to what they put into it (effort, experience, education, competence) and then compare their outcome-input ration with that of relevant others
the employee’s perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals (how much we should be paid relative to what we think we should be paid).
a larger perception of what is fair in the workplace. Employees perceive their organizations as just when they believe the outcomes they have received and the way they received them are fair.
the perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards.
an individual’s perception of the degree to which she is treated with dignity, concern, and respect.
the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of our exceptions of a given outcome and its attractiveness. Employees will be motivated to exert a high level of effort when they believe it will lead to a good performance appraisal, which will lead to rewards.
Creator of Expectancy Theory
Effort Performance relationship
The probability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance
Performance Reward Relationship
The degree to which the individual believes performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome