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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (39):

Who developed the Job Characteristic Model

Haackman and Oldham


5 core job dimensions of JCM

1. Skill Variety
2. Task Identity
3. Task Significance
4. Autonomy
5. Feedback


Skill Variety

the degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities so the worker can use a number of different skills and tasks


Task Identity

the degree to which a job requires completion of a whole identifiable piece of work.


Task Significance

the degree to which a job has an impact on the lives or the work of other people (nurse).



the degree to which a job provides the worker freedom, independence, and discretion in scheduling the work and determine the procedures in carrying it out.



the degree to which carrying out work activities generates direct and clear information about your own performance


Job rotation

the periodic shifting of an employee form one task to another with similar skill requirements at the same organizational level.


Job Enrichment

Expands jobs by increasing the degree to which the worker controls the planning, execution, and evaluation of the work.


6 actions of job enrichment

1.combining tasks
2. formning natural work units
3. Establishing client relationships
4. Expanding jobs vertically
5. opening feedback channels



flexible work hours. 40 hour a week jobs. Does not apply to ever job.


Job Sharing

Allows two or more individuals to split a traditional 40 hour a week job.



No commuting, flexible work hours, freedom to dress as you please, and few interruptions from colleagues


3 types of telecommuting

1.routing information handling tasks activities
3.professional and other knowledge-related tasks


3 Alternative work arrangements

1. Flextime
2. Job Sharing
3. Telecommuting


Employee Involvement

a participative process that uses employees’ input to increase their commitment to the organizations success. If we engage workers in decisions that affect them and increase their autonomy and control over their work lives, they will become more satisfied with their job.


Participative Management

If we engage workers in decisions that affect them and increase their autonomy and control over their work lives, they will become more satisfied with their job.


Representative Participation

the most widely legislated form of employee involvement around the world. It’s goal is to redistribute power within an organization, putting labor on a more equal footing with the interests of management and stockholders by letting workers be represented by a small group of employees who actually participate (Europe).


4 steps of rewards to motivate employees

1. what to pay
2. how to pay individual employees
3. what benefits and choices to offer
4. how to construct employee recognition programs


Internal Equity

the worth of the job to the organization (usually established through a technical process called job evaluation).


External Equity

the external competitiveness of an organization’s pay relative to pay elsewhere in its industry (usually established through pay surveys).


Variable Pay Programs

bases a portion of an employee’s pay on some individuals and/or organizational measure of performance. Earnings, therefore, fluctuate up and down.


Price-Rate Pay

has been popular as a means of compensating production workers by paying a fixed sum for each unit of production completed. Provides no base salary and pays the employee only for what he produces.not feasible for many jobs


Merit-Based Pay

pays for individual’s performance based on performance appraisal ratings. Advantage, people thought to be high performers can be given bigger raises. (they are typically based on an annual performance appraisal and thus are only as valid as the performance ratings., fluctuates on economy, unions resist)



a significant component of total compensation for many jobs. Incentive effects of performance bonuses should be higher than those of merit pay because, rather than paying for performance years ago, bonuses reward recent performance. When times are bad, companies can cut bonuses to reduce compensation costs.


Profit-Sharing Plans

an organization-wide program that distributes compensation based on some established formula designed around a company’s profitability. It can be direct cash outlays or, particularly for top managers, allocations of stock options.


Gain Sharing

a formula-based group incentive plan that uses improvements in-group productivity from one period to another determines the total amount of money allocated. o It is different from profit sharing in that it ties rewards to productivity gains rather than profits. Employees can receive incentive awards even when the organization isn’t profitable.


Employee Stock Ownership Plans

a company-established benefit plan which employees acquire stock, often at below market prices, as part of their benefits.


Flexible Benefits

individualize rewards by allowing each employee to choose the compensation package that best satisfies his current needs and situation.


Intrinsic Rewards

in the form of employee recognition programs


Extrinsic Rewards

in the form of compensation systems


5 implications to managers

1.Recognize and allow for individual differences
2.Use specific goals and feedback
3.Allow employees to participate in decisions that affect them
4.Link rewards to performance
5.Check the reward system for equity


Motivating Jobs must be:

Autonomous, provide feedback, have at least on of the 3 meaningfulness factors


Social characteristics that improve job performance:

interdependence, social support, and interactions with other people outside work.


Work context also affects performance

noise, safety, temperature


required conditions for participative management

Issues must be relevant
Employees must be competent and knowledgeable
All parties must act in good faith


Modular Plans

predesigned packages to meet the needs of a specific group


Core Plus Plans

essential benefits and menu of options to choose from


Flexible spending plans

full choice from menu of options