Chapter 4 - Exercise Metabolism and Bioenergetics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Exercise Metabolism and Bioenergetics Deck (58):
1

Food and Energy

Food is main source of energy
-Food broken down into substrates
-Energy in these substrates (macros) is then chemically released in cells and stored in the form of ATP

2

Bioenergetics

The study of energy being transformed through various biochemical reactions

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Metabolism

All of the chemical rxns that occur in the body to maintain itself
-The process in which nutrients are acquired, transported, used, and disposed of by the body

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Exercise Metabolism

The examination of bioenergetics as it relates to the unique physiologic changes and demands placed on the body during exercise

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Substrates

The material or substance on which an enzyme acts

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Carbohydrates

An important source of energy, all eventually broken down in the body to glucose

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Glucose

A simple sugar manufactured by the body from the carbs, proteins, and fats that serve as the body's main source of fuel
-Circulates body and is either used or stored as energy

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Glycogen

The complex carb molecule used to store carbs in the liver and muscle cells
-When carb energy is needed, glycogen is converted into glucose for use by the muscle cells

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Fats

Help the body use some vitamins and keep skin healthy, also stores energy for the body

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Two Types of Fats

Saturated and Unsaturated

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Triglycerides

The chemical or substrate form in which most fat exists

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Protein

Amino Acids linked by peptide bonds that have several essential biologic compounds

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Protein and Energy

Protein rarely supplies much energy to the body during exercise

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Gluconeogenesis

The formation of glucose from non carbohydrate sources, such as AA's

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ATP

Adenosine Triphosphate
-One of the primary sources of immediate energy for cellular metabolism

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Releasing Energy

Energy is released when chemical bonds that hold ATP together are broken (Leads to ADP)

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ADP

Adenosine Diphosphate
-A high-energy compound occurring in all cells from which ATP is formed (reattaches a phosphate group)

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Energy and Muscle Contraction

-Energy and ATP facilitates muscle contraction
-An enzyme at the cross bridges seperates a phosphate group releasing energy to contract the muscle
-One muscle contraction requires two ATP's

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2 Factors Defining Exercise

Intensity and duration
-Inversely related

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Identifying the Predominate Energy System Being Used

Is determined by identifying where an exercise is located in relation to duration and intensity

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Used Energy Released from ATP

Only 40 percent in actually used, remainder released as heat

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Enzyme ATPase

Is the enzyme that splits the phosphate group off ATP, releasing energy

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Phosphate released

Leaves ADP and an inorganic phosphate molecule (Pi) remaining

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Before Releasing More Energy

Another phosphate must be added to ADP through a process called phosphorylation

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Phosphorylation

Adding another phosphate to an ADP

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The 3 Metabolic Pathways in Which Cells Can Generate ATP

1) ATP-PC System (Anaerobic)
2) The Glycolytic System (Glycolysis) (Aerobic or Anaerobic)
3) The Oxidative System (Oxidative Phosphorylation) (Aerobic)

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ATP-PC System

Transfers phosphate from another high-energy molecule called phosphocreatine (PC) to an ADP molecule
-Simplest and fastest of energy systems and occurs without the presence of oxygen

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ATP-PC Energy System

Immediate Energy
-Short term high intensity

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The Glycolytic System (Glycolysis)

Uses anaerobic glycolysis

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Anaerobic Glycolysis

The chemical breakdown of glucose

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Glucose-6-Phosphate

A compound that glucose or glycogen must convert to before generating energy

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ATP Required for G-6-P Conversion

Requires 1 ATP from glucose conversion and 0 ATP from glycogen conversion

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Glycolysis ATP End-Result

Glucose: 2 ATP for each unit of glucose
Glycogen: 3 ATP for each unit of glycogen

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Aerobic Glycolysis and Anaerobic Glycolysis Difference

Aerobic Glycolysis: Glucose or glycogen is broken down into pyruvic acid
Anaerobic Glycolysis: broken down into lactic acid

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Anaerobic Glycolysis Energy System Exercise

Short-term energy system
-30-50 second, 8-12 rep range

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The Oxidative System (Oxidative Phosphorylation)

-The most complex of the 3 energy systems
-Uses substrated with the aid of oxygen to generate ATP
-3 aerobic processes (require oxygen)

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3 Aerobic Processes of Oxidative Phosphorylation

1) Aerobic Glycolysis
2) The Krebs Cycle
3) The Electron Transport Chain (ETC)

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1) Aerobic Glycolysis

Produces pyruvic acid which is converted into Acetyl Coenzyme A (Acetyl CoA) with the presence of oxygen

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Acetyl CoA

An important molecule in metabolism that contributes substrate for use in the second oxidative production of ATP (Krebs Cycle)

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Complete Oxidation of Acetyl CoA

Produces 2 units of ATP, CO2, and Hydrogen

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Hydrogen Ions from Aerobic Glycolysis

Combine with other enzymes and provide energy for oxidative phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP in the third process of oxidation (ETC)

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Complete Metabolism of Single Glucose Molecule

Produces between 35-40 ATP

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Metabolizing Fat Aerobically

B-Oxidation

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B-Oxidation

The breakdown of triglycerides into smaller subunits called FFA's to convert FFA into Acetyl CoA molecules, which are then available to enter Krebs Cycle and ultimately lead to the production of additional ATP

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Fat Oxidation VS Carbs

Fat oxidation produces more ATP but requires more oxygen

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End Result of Aerobic Metabolism

Water and CO2

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Oxidative Phosphorylation Energy System

Long-term energy

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Steady-State Exercise

Exercise performed at a constact pace/intensity
-Typically the type of exercise used when assessing exercise metabolism

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Body's Preferred Energy System

The Oxidative System because it requires oxygen and CO2 and water and more easily eliminated

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Oxygen Consumption After Exercise

Remains elevated for a short period of time to keep generating ATP aerobically (EPOC)

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Excess Postexercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC)

The state in which the body's metabolism is elevated after exercise

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Excess ATP After Exercise

Is used for recovery and to help reestablish baseline levels of ATP and PC while assisting with clearing metabolic end products

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Metabolism During Intermittent Work

The same pattern occurs multiple times with every change in work requirement

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Measuring Fuel Contribution During Exercise

Uses Respiratory Quotient (RQ)

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Respiratory Quotient (RQ)

The amount of CO2 expired divided by the amount of O2 consumed
-can determine the relative contribution of carbs and fats as a fuel source

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RQ of 1.00

Carbs are supplying 100 percent of the fuel

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RQ of 0.7

Fats are supplying 100 percent of the fuel

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RQ between 0.7 and 1.0

Indicated a mixture of carbs and fats fueling metabolism