Chapter 4 The Muscular System Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Chapter 4 The Muscular System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 4 The Muscular System Deck (97):
0

A-
An-

No, not, without, away from, negative

1

Anti-

Against

2

Asthen-
-asthenia

Weakness, lack of strength

3

Brady-

Abnormally slow

4

-cele

Hernia, tumor, swelling

5

Claudicat/o

Limping

6

-clonus

Violent action

7

Condyl/o

Knuckle, knob

8

Epi-

Above, upon, on

9

Erg/o
-ergy

Work

10

Fasci/o

Fascia, fibrous band

11

Fibr/o

Fibrous tissue, fiber

12

Flex/o

Bend

13

Hemi-

Half

14

Herni/o

Hernia

15

Hypo-

Deficient, decreased

16

-ia

Abnormal condition, disease

17

Intermitt/o

Not continuous

18

-ion

Action, process, state or condition

19

Kines/o
Kinesi/o
-kinesia

Movement

20

Muscul/o
My/o
Myos/o

Muscle

21

Noct/I

Night

22

Nom/o

Law, control

23

Par-
Para-

Beside, near, beyond, abnormal, apart from, opposite, along side of

24

-paresis

Partial or incomplete paralysis

25

-plegia

Paralysis, stroke

26

Sarc/o

Flesh, connective tissue

27

Tax/o

Coordination, order

28

Ten/o
Tend/o
Tendin/o

Tendon

29

Ton/o

Tension, tone, stretching

30

Tort/I

Twisted

31

Troph/o
-trophy

Development, nourishment

32

Adduction

Movement of a limb toward the midline of the body

33

Abduction

Movement of a limb away from the midline of the body

34

Oblique

Slanted or at an angle

35

Exercise physiologist

Specialist who develops, implements, and coordinates exercise programs, and administer medical tests to promote physical fitness

36

Physiatrist

Specializes in physical medicine and rehabilitation with the focus on restoring function

37

Fasciitis

Inflammation of a fascia

38

Fibromyalgia

Debilitating chronic condition characterized by fatigue; diffuse or specific muscle, joint, or bone pain

39

Tenosynovitis

Inflammation of sheath surrounding a tendon

40

Tendinitis

Inflammation of the tendons caused by excessive use of the joint

41

Myorrhaphy

Surgical suturing of a muscle

42

RICE

Rest, ice, compression, elevation

43

Tenodesis

Surgical suturing of end of a tendon to a bone

44

Tenolysis

Release of tendon from adhesions

45

Tenorrhaphy

Surgical suturing of the divided ends of a tendon

46

Ergonomics

Study of human factors that affect design and operation of tools and the work environment

47

Electromyography

Diagnostic test that measures the electrical activity within muscle fibers in response to nerve stimulation

48

Antispasmodic

Administered to suppress smooth muscle contractions of the stomach, intestine, or bladder

49

Neuromuscular blocker

Causes temporary paralysis by blocking transmission of nerve stimuli to the muscles

50

Myofascial release

Specialized soft-tissue manipulation technique used to ease the pain of conditions such as fibromyalgia syndrome, myofascial pain syndrome, movement restrictions, and carpal tunnel syndrome

51

Occupational therapy

Activities to promote recovery and rehabilitation to assist patients in performing the activities of daily living

52

Physical therapy

Treatment to prevent disability or restore function through use of exercise, heat, massage, or other techniques

53

Myoparesis

Weakness or slight muscular paralysis

54

Hemiparesis

Slight paralysis or weakness affecting only one side of the body

55

Hemiplegia

Total paralysis affecting only one side of the body usually associated with brain damage

56

Paraplegia

Paralysis of both legs and lower part of body

57

Quadriplegia

Paralysis of all four extremities

58

Deep tendon reflex

Tested with reflex hammer; no response indicates disruption of nerve supply to involved muscles

59

Range of motion testing

Diagnostic procedure to evaluate joint mobility and muscle strength; increase strength, flexibility, and mobility

60

Spinal cord injury

Determined extent of paralysis based on level of vertebra closest to injury

61

Ganglion cyst

Harmless fluid swelling that occurs most commonly in outer surface of wrist; usually painless and does not require treatment

62

Epicondylitis

Inflammation of tissues surrounding the elbow

63

Heel spur

Calcium deposit in the plantar fascia near its attachment to the calcaneus (heel bone)

64

Plantar fasciitis

Inflammation of plantar fascia on the sole of the foot

65

Sprain

Injury to a joint which usually occurs when a ligament is wrenched or torn

66

Shin splint

Painful condition in which muscle is torn away from the tibia

67

Carpal tunnel syndrome

Tendons that pass through the carpal tunnel are chronically overused and become inflamed and swollen

68

Impingement syndrome

Occurs when inflamed and swollen tendons are caught in the narrow space between the bones in the shoulder joint

69

Chronic fatigue syndrome

Unknown cause; characterized by profound fatigue that is not improved by bed rest and may be made worse by physical or mental activity

70

Adhesion

Band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally

71

Atrophy

Weakness or wearing away of body tissues and structures

72

Myocele

Herniation of muscle substance through a tear in the fascia surrounding it

73

Hernia

Protrusion of a part of a structure through the tissues normally containing it

74

Myolysis

Degeneration of muscle tissue

75

Polymyositis

Muscle disease characterized by simultaneous inflammation and weakening of voluntary muscles

76

Atonic

Lacking normal muscle tone or strength

77

Ataxia

Lack of muscle coordination during voluntary movement

78

Bradykinesia

Extreme slowness in movement

79

Dystonia

Abnormal muscle tone that causes the impairment of voluntary muscle movement

80

Hypotonia

Condition in which there is diminished tone of skeletal muscles

81

Contracture

Permanent tightening of fascia, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or skin that occurs when normally elastic connective tissues are replaced with nonelastic fibrous tissues

82

Intermittent claudication

Pain in leg muscles that occurs during exercise and is relieved by rest

83

Spasmodic torticollis

Stiff neck to due to spasmodic contraction of neck muscles

84

Dyskinesia

Distortion or impairment of voluntary movement such as a tic or spasm

85

Hyperkinesia

Abnormally increased muscle function or activity

86

Myoclonus

Sudden involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles

87

Nocturnal myoclonus

Jerking of limbs that occur normally as a person is falling asleep

88

Singultus

Hiccups; myoclonus of the diaphragm

89

Myasthenia gravis

Chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction and produces serious weakness of voluntary muscles

90

Muscular dystrophy

Describes genetic diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of skeletal muscles that control movement without affecting nervous system

91

Repetitive stress disorders

Muscular conditions that result from repeated motions performed in the course of normal work activities, or recreations

92

Sphincter

Ring like muscle that constricts opening of a passageway

93

Transverse

In a crosswise direction

94

Circumduction

Circular movement at the far end of a limb

95

Pronation

Act of rotating the arm or leg so that the palm or sole is turned downward or backward

96

Dorsiflexion

Movement that bends the foot upward at an angle