Chapter 5 Cardiovascular System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Cardiovascular System Deck (97):
0

Angi/o
Vas/o

Blood or lymph vessel

1

Aort/o

Aorta

2

Ather/o

Plaque, fatty substance

3

Capill/o

Hair

4

Card/o
Cardi/o

Heart

5

-crasia

A mixture or blending

6

Electr/o

Electricity, electric

7

Embol/o

Something inserted or thrown in

8

-emia

Blood, blood condition

9

Erythr/o

Red

10

Fibrill/o

Muscular twitching

11

Hem/o
Hemat/o

Blood, relating to blood

12

Infarct/o

Filled in, stuffed

13

Leuk/o

White

14

Occlus/o
Occlud/o

Shut, close up

15

Rhythm/o

Rhythm

16

-sclerosis

Abnormal hardening

17

Sept/o

Infection, partition

18

Tachy-

Fast, rapid

19

Thromb/o

Clot

20

Valv/o
Valvul/o

Valve

21

Ven/o

Vein

22

Angina

Severe episodes of chest pain due to inadequate blood flow to myocardium

23

Coronary artery disease

Atherosclerosis of coronary arteries that reduces blood supply to heart; insufficient oxygen supply causes angina, myocardial infarction, or death

24

Ischemic heart disease

Cardiac disabilities associated with coronary artery disease resulting from insufficient supply of oxygenated blood to the heart

25

Atheroma

Deposit of plaque on or within the arterial wall

26

Myocardial infarction

Aka heart attack; occlusion (blockage) of one or more coronary arteries caused by plaque buildup

27

Endocarditis

Inflammation of inner lining of the heart

28

Cardiomyopathy

Describes diseases of the heart muscle

29

Valvulitis

Inflammation of a heart valve

30

Arrhythmia

Loss of normal rhythm of heart beat; can be minor or severe depending on how much ability to pump blood is compromised

31

Cardiac arrest

Heart abruptly stops beating or develops an arrhythmia that prevents it from pumping blood effectively

32

Bradycardia

Abnormally slow resting heart rate

33

Tachycardia

Abnormally rapid resting heart rate

34

Atrial fibrillation

Normal rhythmic contractions of atria are replaced by rapid, irregular twitching of the muscular heart wall

35

Ventricular fibrillation

Very rapid heartbeat that begins in ventricle; instead of pumping the heart quivers ineffectively

36

Ventricular tachycardia

Very rapid heart beat beginning in ventricles; beating so rapidly blood cannot be efficiently pumped

37

Temporal arteritis

Form of vasculitis that can cause headaches, visual impairment, and jaw pain; diagnosed by presence of abnormally large cells

38

Aneurism

Localized weak spot or balloon-like enlargement of the wall of an artery

39

Chronic venous insufficiency

Venous circulation inadequate due to partial vein blockage or leakage of valves

40

Phlebitis

Inflammation of a vein

41

Varicose veins

Abnormally swollen veins; valves do not function properly so blood pools in the veins

42

Thrombosis

Abnormal condition of having a thrombus

43

Thrombus

Blood clot attached to the interior wall of an artery or vein

44

Thrombotic occlusion

Blocking of artery by a thrombus

45

Coronary thrombosis

Damage to heart caused by thrombus blocking a coronary artery

46

Deep vein thrombosis

Condition of having a thrombus attached to the interior wall of a deep vein

47

Embolism

Sudden blockage of a blood vessel by an embolus

48

Embolus

Foreign object such as a blood clot, quantity of air or gas, bit of tissue, or tumor circulating in the blood

49

Peripheral artery disease

Caused by atherosclerosis; impaired circulation to extremities and vital organs

50

Peripheral vascular disease

Disorders of blood vessels usually involve narrowing of vessels that carry blood to legs, arms, stomach, or kidneys

51

Raynaud's disease

Peripheral artery disease in which attacks are triggered by cold or stress; constricted circulation

52

Blood dyscrasia

Pathologic condition of cellular elements of the blood

53

Leukopenia

Decrease in number of disease-fighting white blood cells circulating in the blood

54

Septicemia

Associated with infections caused by bacteria in blood; spiking fever, chills, rapid breathing, rapid heart rate

55

Thrombocytopenia

Abnormally small number of platelets circulating in blood

56

Cholesterol

Fatty substance travels through blood. Aids in production of cell membranes, hormones, and vitamin D. Obtained by dietary sources and created in liver

57

Myelodysplastic syndrome

Bone marrow disorders that are characterized by the insufficient production of one or more types of blood cells due to dysfunction of bone marrow

58

Leukemia

Cancer characterized by progressive increase in number of abnormal leukocytes found in blood forming tissues, organs, and circulating blood

59

Anemia

Lower than normal number of erythrocytes in blood; severity measured by decrease of hemoglobin

60

Aplastic anemia

Characterized by an absence of all formed blood elements caused by failure of blood cell production in bone marrow

61

Hemolytic anemia

Characterized by inadequate number of circulating red blood cells due to premature destruction of red blood cells by the spleen

62

Megaloblastic anemia

Red blood cells are larger than normal; results from deficiency of folic acid or vitamin B12

63

Pernicious anemia

Caused by lack of protein that helps absorb vitamin B12

64

Sickle cell anemia

Genetic disorder causes some red blood cells to assume a sickle shape

65

Transfusion reaction

Patient's blood and donor blood do not match

66

Hypertension

High blood pressure; elevation of arterial blood pressure that causes damage to cardiovascular system

67

Orthostatic hypotension

Low blood pressure that occurs upon standing up

68

Cardiac catheterization

Diagnostic procedure; catheter passed through vein/artery into heart; determines how well heart is working

69

Electrocardiography

Noninvasive process of recording electrical activity of the myocardium

70

Thallium stress test

Injecting thallium into blood stream to evaluate how well blood flows through coronary arteries

71

ACE inhibitor

Blocks action of enzyme that causes blood vessels to contract, reduces blood pressure

72

Beta blocker

Reduces workload of heart by slowing rate of heartbeat

73

Calcium channel blocker agents

Causes heart and blood vessels to relax by decreasing movement of calcium into cells of these structures

74

Diuretic

Stimulates kidneys to increase secretion of urine to rid body of excess sodium and water

75

Antiarrhythmic

Controls irregularities of heartbeat

76

Anticoagulant

Slows coagulation and prevents new clots from forming

77

Thrombolytic

Dissolves or causes thrombus to break up

78

Tissue plasminogen activator

Thrombolytic administered to patients having heart attack or stroke

79

Vasoconstrictor

Causes blood vessels to narrow

80

Vasodilator

Causes blood vessels to expand

81

Angioplasty

Mechanically widening an obstructed blood vessel

82

Atherectomy

Surgical removal of plaque buildup from interior of an artery

83

Carotid endarterectomy

Surgical removal of lining of a portion of clogged carotid artery leading to brain

84

Coronary artery bypass graft

Piece of vein from leg or chest is implanted on the heart to replace a blocked coronary artery

85

Defibrillation

Use of electric shock to restore heart's normal rhythm

86

Automated implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

Double action pacemaker

87

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Artificial respiration and manual external cardiac compression

88

Hemostasis

Stop or control bleeding

89

High density lipoprotein

Good cholesterol carries unneeded cholesterol back to liver

90

Low density lipoprotein

Bad cholesterol contributes to plaque buildup in arteries

91

Congestive heart failure

Heart is unable to pump out all of the blood it receives; decreased pumping causes congestion in form of fluid buildup

92

Atherosclerosis

Hardening of arteries

93

Pericardium

Double layered sac that surrounds the heart

94

Cardiotonic

Increases tone of heart

95

Antiplatelet

Decreases platelet aggregation

96

Antilipidemic

Reduces level of lipids in the serum