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Flashcards in Chapter 5: Anxiety Disorders Deck (104)
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31

What is the DSM-V definition of phobias?

-Persistent, unrealistic fears of specific objects or situations
-Exposure to feared stimulus produces intense fear or panic attacks
-Avoidance responses are almost always present
-Anxiety dissipates when phobic situation is not being confronted
-Symptoms present for at least 6 months
-Symptoms cause significant distress or dysfunction

32

What are the 3 subcategories of phobias?

-Agoraphobia
-Specific phobia
-Social phobia

33

What is the DSM-V definition of specific phobias

-Excessive fears of particular objects or situations
-Immediate anxiety usually produced by exposure
-Avoidance of feared object/situation
-Symptoms present for at least 6 months
-Symptoms cause significant distress, impairment

34

What are the types of specific phobias?

-Animal
-Natural environment
-Situational
-Blood-injection/injury

35

What is the one year prevalence of specific phobias?

8.7%

36

What is the lifetime prevalence of specific phobias?

11%

37

What is the gender ratio of specific phobias?

2:1 (female:male)

38

When is the onset of specific phobias?

Usually in childhood, but can start any age

39

What is the course specific phobias take?

-Young children often have phobias, but many of them are outgrown without therapy
-Phobias later in life may be life-long if not confronted

40

Define the ways through which fears are learned?

-Classical conditioning
-Modeling = observing & imitating others' reactions
-Stimulus generalization = response to one stimulus also elicited by similar stimuli (Little Albert)

41

Define preparedness.

A predisposition to develop certain fears

42

What is exposure therapy? Describe some examples.

Behavioral treatments of specific phobias in which persons are exposed to the objects/situations they fear
-flooding = repeated, intense exposure
-systematic desensitization = relaxation training, fear hierarchy
-participant modeling
-virtual exposure

43

What is the DSM-V definition for social phobia?

-Fear of social or performance situations (especially involving exposure to unfamiliar people)
-Concern about rejection, humiliation, or embarrassment
-Symptoms present for at least 6 months
-Symptoms cause significant distress or dysfunction

44

What factors can predispose a person to social phobia?

Shyness, cautiousness, introverted temperament, sensitive NS

45

When is the onset and peak of social phobia?

-Onset @ 10-20 years
-Peak around age 13

46

What is the one year prevalence of social phobia?

6.8%

47

What is the lifetime prevalence of social phobia?

9%

48

What is the gender ratio of social phobias?

3:2 (female:male)

49

What types of medications help treat social phobias?

-Antidepressants (especially SSRI's)
-Beta blockers

50

What are some psychological forms of treatment for social phobias?

-Social skills training
-Assertiveness training
-Group therapy
-Cognitive therapy

51

What is the DSM-V definition of agoraphobia?

-Excessive fear of being in public places or situations from which escape might be difficult or embarrassing or help unavailable if panic-like symptoms were to occur
-Fear tends to be worse when alone
-Extensive avoidance behavior which can become very generalized (house-bound)
-Symptoms present for at least 6 months
-Symptoms cause significant distress or impairment

52

What is the etymology of agoraphobia?

-"Agora" = center of public life in ancient Athens
-"fear of the marketplace"

53

What is the one year prevalence of agoraphobia?

0.8%

54

What is the lifetime prevalence of agoraphobia?

5%

55

What is the gender ratio of agoraphobia?

5:2 (female:male)

56

When is the onset of agoraphobia?

Ages 20-35

57

What are the treatment options of agoraphobia?

-Exposure therapy (behavior)
-Cognitive therapy
-Antidepressants (especially SSRI's)

58

What is the DSM-V criteria for a panic attack?

A discrete period of intense fear or discomfort in which 4 or more of the following symptoms develop abruptly and reach a peak w/in a few mins:
-pounding heart/palpitations, sweating, trembling, shortness of breath, choking feeling, chest pain, nausea, feeling dizzy, depersonalization, fear of going crazy, fear of dying, numbness, chills or hot flashes

59

What is the etymology of panic?

Pan = Greek & Roman god of nature, the wild, often associated with sexuality and fertility

60

What is the DSM-V definition of panic disorder?

-Repeated and unexpected panic attacks
-Fear of recurring panic attacks or losing control
-Avoidance of situations associated w/ prior attacks
-Symptoms present for at least 6 months
-Symptoms cause significant distress or dysfunction