Chapter 5: Correlates of Criminal Behavior Flashcards Preview

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Definition: Correlate

a phenomenon that accompanies another phenomenon and is related in some way to it


6 Major Correlates to Crime

age, gender, race, drug & alcohol use, socio-economic status, spatial location


Age as a Correlate

criminal activity intensifies in adolescence and young adulthood (except white collar)


Definition: Maturational Reform (3)

theory that people are less likely to commit crimes as they age for 3 reasons
1) Physiological limits
2) Social bonds
3) Responsible trajectory of human agency (ie. getting wasted)


Crime as risk taking behavior (3)

1) Young people concerned more with benefits than costs
2) Immediacy weighs heavily
3) "Limited Rationality"


Reasons Age is related to crime (3)

1) Individual factors: conduct problems; bullying; unemotional
2) Family background: poor parental supervision; physical abuse; child of convicts more likely
3) Institutional: exposure to juvenile court


Romance-crime Nexus

men more likely to offend after breakup


Gender as a Correlate

men more likely to commit crimes (9x more homicide); especially violent crimes & serious property offences. Females only higher for drug possession and prostitution


Women and Crime

female cases more likely to be withdrawn and have shorter sentences. very few dangerous offenders. women more likely to be killed in spousal homicides


Otto Polak's Explanation for Sex Differences

supposed "greater cunning and deceitfulness" of women


Chivalry Thesis

preferential treatment by law enforcement agents and agencies


Power Control Theory

in patriarchal families the daughters have very strict rules relayed to them by their mothers that deters them from risk taking. This is not the case in egalitarian families


5 Pathways for Women's Involvement in Crime (Kathleen Daly)

1) Harmed and harming women: endured abuse; difficult family life; substance abuse
2) Battered women: abusive partner is defining factor
3) Street women: suffered serious abuse and are engaged in prostitution, drug selling and theft
4) Drug-connected women: engaged in illicit drug use and sale because of connections
5) Other women: usually engaged in crime for economic gain


Convergence Theory

as women's roles become more like men's, crime rates will converge (appears to be stable now); limited to petty theft and fraud


Race as a Correlate

more minorities in the criminal justice system (blacks in the USA, aboriginals in Canada)


Differential Offending Hypothesis

the biological perspective that there are actual differences in racial groups


Differential Treatment Hypothesis

structural inequality in administration of justice is responsible; police give more attention; social spaces more surveillance;


Cultural Theories

identify traits, characteristics, way of life to explain involvement in criminal justice process; dominant vs subculture idea


2 Strains as to Why Aboriginals are Overepresented

1) the view that they are inherently violent
2) Close to cultural conflict theory: their culture is different from the dominant and they are alienated by the norms, laws etc.


Criticisms of Cultural Theories

1) Presuppose monolithic & static culture
2) Assume there is "Aboriginal behavior"
3) Pathologize their culture
4) Do not engage with bi-dimensional phenomenon: incorporating their cultures without access to legit opportunity


Structural Theories of Crime

situate locus of criminality in historical context and prevailing structures of society; like the distribution of valuable resources (education, jobs etc.). 3 types


Colonial Model

Frantz Fanon: a socio-psychological perspective that focuses on the intersection of structural oppression, alienation and 3 adaptive forms of behavior (assimilation, crime, or protest); results in cultural limbo


Tatum's 4 Stages of Colonization

1) Territory of one group invaded by another
2) Colonial society formed; cultural imposition, disintegration and recreation occur
3) Native peoples find themselves governed by colonizer's representatives
4) Colonial society develops a caste system based on race


Definition: Mentacide

deliberate and systematic destruction of a group's minds with the ultimate objective being extirpation of the group


Historic Trauma Transmission Model

Wesley & Smolewski: focus on how historic trauma manifests itself social and psychologically; acculturation associated with negative outcomes; idea of learned helplessness


4 ways that traumatic memories are passed down

1) Biological channels: presdispositions
2) Story telling
3) Direct result of violence, deficient parenting etc.
4) Psychological avenues: memory, recollections of pain & suffering


Critical Race Theory

Derrick Bell: challenges the policies & dynamics & taken for granted assumptions of institutional power; social constructionist approach; left leaning; legal indeterminacy


Definition: Social Constructionist

questions the idea of observable or measurable social reality, proposes a crime is whatever a society defines it to be


Assumptions of the Critical Race theory

1) Law reflects dominant groups and favors them
2) Enforcement is biased
3) Law interpretation is subjective
4) Law is not colour blind
5) racism in justice system is normal


Definition: Racialization

process whereby categories of the population are constructed, differentiated, inferiorized and excluded