Chapter 1: Crime, Criminals & Criminology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1: Crime, Criminals & Criminology Deck (14)
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Definition of Criminology

The body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon. Includes processes of making laws, breaking laws & reaction to the breaking of laws.


6 major areas of Criminology

1) Definition of crime and criminals
2) Origins & role of law
3) Social distribution of crime
4) Causation of crime
5) Patterns of criminal behavior
6) Societal reactions to crime


Definition of Norms

established rules of behavior or standards of conduct


Legal Definition of crime

an act that violates the criminal law and is punishable


Definition of White Collar Crime

crime committed by middle/upper class individuals in the course of their legitimate business activities


Continuum of crime and deviance (how serious it is)

1) Degree of consensus that an act is wrong
2) Severity of society's response to the act
3) Assessment of the degree of harm of the act


4 varieties of deviance

Consensus crimes, conflict crimes, social deviations, social diversions


Consensus theory of law (structural functionalism)

laws represent an agreement of most of the people in a society that certain acts should be prohibited by the law (focused on values)


Class conflict theory of law

laws passed by members of ruling class to maintain a privileged position by keeping common people under control


Green Criminology

studying actions that are socially harmful. Roots in environmental and animal rights movements. Grounded in ecological citizenships (rights should be extended to non-humans)


Terrorism studies

began with the 9/11 attacks and examines both the actual definition as well as social definition of terrorism


Definition of Terrorism

Illegitimate use of force to achieve a political objective by targeting innocent people


Surveillance Studies

commercialization of data, consequences of surveillance, privacy rights


Surveillance definition

any systematic focus on personal info in order to influence, manage, entitle, or control those whose info is collected