Flashcards in Chapter 14: Social Control Theory Deck (15)
What is the central idea behind social control theory?
that people refrain from criminal acts because they do not want to jeopardize bonds; humans are neither good nor evil
What are the 4 main theorists behind the early theories of social disorganization?
What were Durkheim's points about social integration?
he pointed out the importance of social bonds in restraining people from deviance and also creating deviance
What were the 4 types of suicide outlined by Durkheim?
1) Egoistic: isolated and acts on base of self interests
2) Altruistic: overly committed to society
3) Anomic: lack of social integration leads to lack of norms
4) Fatalistic: so unhappy with way things are they end it
What did Thrasher's ideas mainly surround? What 3 places does he specify that gangs appear?
the idea of gangs and how they arise where social controls are weak
1) Geographic breaks (city areas)
2) Social breaks (adolescence gap)
3) Delinquency is exciting
Who took part in the ecological analysis? What does this entail? What was the central aspect to their theory?
Shaw and McKay; means society looked at as a whole unit; deviance originates when society fails to supply the structure for realization of common values; rates highest in slums near city centre
What is an Ecological fallacy?
it is the error made when information is gathered at a group level and conclusions are drawn about individuals
What did Albert Reiss theorize?
he distinguished between social and personal controls
What did Ivan Nye Theorize?
he used the self-report method to create better data on Reiss' theories; he believed the family was the most significant group for social controls
What were the 4 linked aspects of social bonds that constrain our behavior according to Hirschi?
1) Attachment: degree to which person has affective ties to others
2) Commitment: degree to which an individual pursues conventional goals
3) Involvement: degree to which a person is involved in conventional activities
4) Belief: degree to which an individual believes in conventional values, morality and the legitimacy of the law
Who came up with the General Theory of Crime? What did it entail?
Hirschi and Gottfredson; that self control was the main factor in deviance and that self control mainly came from early childhood socialization
What is the "turning point"? Who came up with the concept?
a point where an individual departs from criminality; Sampson and Laub
What are the 2 ways schooling affects rates of deviance?
1) it overrides family as the most prominent social influence
2) it affects daily lives profoundly
What factors predict the least amount of collective efficacy?
more disadvantages, more immigrants and less residential mobility leads to less efficacy