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Flashcards in Chapter 9: Psychological Theories Deck (13)
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1

Psychology theories of crime and their assumptions

focus on personality or learning; assumptions include:
1) Assumption of offender deficit
2) Assumption of discriminating traits

2

Definition: Community Psychology

analyzes social problems like crime as a result of organizational and institutional characteristics of society

3

4 Levels that Psychologists view crime

1) Individual level
2) Small group level
3) Organizational level
4) Institutional or community level

4

Psychoanalytic theory

main ideas being that human nature is inherently anti social and needs to be socialized as well as personality is fixed from childhood; Freud himself did not apply psychoanalytic theory to crime

5

Id/Ego/Superego

1) Id: biological drives
2) Ego: directs impulses of id; mediator/rational
3) Conscience

6

Ideas regarding crime by psychoanalysts (6)

1) When ego/superego fail to control id
2) It is a form of neurosis
3) Criminals seek punishment to alleviate guilt
4) Crime is gratification not obtained in family
5) Due to repressed traumatic events
6) Displaced hostility

7

Moral Development Theories (Piaget/Kohlberg)

suggested that the key to understanding criminality is the development or failure to develop a sense of morality and responsibility

8

Kohlberg's 3 Stage Moral Theory

1) Preconventional: egocentric; focus on punishment and hedonism; moral values are dos and donts
2) Conventional: social expectations; focus on approval of others and authority maintains morality; internalization of rules and expectations
3) Postconventional: universality; focus on democratically accepted law and principles of conscience; morality based on self chosen principles

9

Eysenck's theory of crime and personality

crime is natural and easy to explain; focus on people who do not commit crime; based on classical conditioning (punishment becomes conscience); criminals less susceptible to conditioning (extraverts perhaps?)

10

Social learning theory (Bandura)

combines social factors with individual cognitive functions and choices; idea of modelling is prevalent (especially with aggression); aggression can come from family, sub culture influences and symbolic (TV); suggests that crime can be reduced through prosocial models or increased sanctions

11

Operant Conditioning (Skinner)

behavior shaped through rewards and punishment; differential reinforcement (Burgess and Akers); soft behaviorism includes environment; token economy shown to work just in short term

12

Antisocial personality

a disregard for others rights; impulsive, aggressive and irresponsible; psychopathy, sociopathy, moral insanity are all other terms; they do not learn from punishment/no fear; prevalent for extremely violent offenders

13

Crime and Mental Illness

originally thought that all crime was caused by mental illness; not true however there is a higher proportion/prevalence (could be because of deinstitutionalization); most start young; serious = schizo, depressive & psychotic