Flashcards in Chapter 15: Deterrence, Routine Activity and Rational Choice Theories (Street/Conventional Crime) Deck (37)
Who was the starter of deterrence theory?
What did Beccaria theorize that was labelled as deterrence theory?
that humans are rational and will not choose crime if it doesn't make sense based on a cost-benefit analysis of the potential gains vs losses
Instead of the severity of punishment what is a better deterrent?
the certainty of the punishment
What is the effect of longer prison sentences in regards to crime? What is an explanation for this?
actually an increase in crime; labelling theory provides explanations of this (the criminal sees himself as such)
Do mandatory minimum sentences deter crime? What is an example of one?
no, they just cause more people in jail; the 3 strikes law in California
What are two ways to increase the certainty of punishment?
1) Hot spots policing
2) Individualized deterrence
What is hot spots policing?
concentrating police resources on high crime locations
What is individualized deterrence?
offenders heavily involved in criminal activity are warned that they are under surveillance; also extra resources is indeed devoted to them
What are 2 real world examples of individualized deterrence?
1) Boston's operation ceasefire: positive effects
2) Hawaii's Project HOPE: made punishment swift and certain for those failing drug tests on probation
Who is behind rational choice theory?
Britain's home office and Clarke and Cornish
What is rational choice theory?
the idea that crime is a result of deliberate choices made by criminals based on their calculations of the risks and rewards; these calculations are not always good
What are 2 central ideas to rational choice theory?
1) Crime is purposeful to fulfill needs
2) Focus on situation factors rather than background of offender
Who are 2 central theorists to Environmental Criminology's contributions to street crime theory? What is their main idea?
Patricia and Paul Birtingham; that daily routes/encounters can influence crime
What are the 3 areas in society where street crime is possible according to environmental criminologists? Describe each briefly
1) Nodes: important areas in a person's life; where they spend a lot of time
2) Paths: routes between nodes
3) Edges: boundaries between different land use areas
Each is vulnerable for different reasons
Who are the main contributors to Lifestyle/exposure theory?
Hindelang, Gottfredson and Garofalo
What is lifestyle/exposure theory? What demonstrates it?
some lifestyles expose people to more risks than others; repeated victimization
Who are the main contributors to the routine activities approach? What did they try to identify?
Cohen and Felson; factors present for a crime to occur
What 3 factors did Cohen and Felson say are present for crime to occur according to the routine activities approach?
1) Motivated offender
2) A suitable target
3) Lack of guardianship
Who are intimate handlers? What do they do in relation to crime?
people close to the criminal who lessen the likelihood that the individual will engage in crime
Who are facilitators? What do they do in relation to crime? What are the 3 categories of them?
people or things that increase the likelihood an individual will engage in crime; 1) physical 2) social 3) chemical
What belief is situational crime prevention premised on? Based on this, what does it attempt to accomplish?
that crime is more opportunistic than inevitable; reduce the opportunities for crime
What are 5 methods for situational prevention?
1) Increasing effort required to commit a crime
2) Increasing risks by increasing surveillance
3) Reducing rewards: facilitate recovery, remove targets
4) Reducing provocation: peer pressure, frustration
5) Reducing excuses: clear rules and limits
What is the goal of those taking a reduction in motivated offenders approach to crime? What variables do they focus on?
prevention through social development and the changing of environment; family problems, peer issues, poverty etc.
What are 2 examples of the motivated offenders approach in action?
1) Perry School Project
2) Winnipeg Auto Theft Suppression Strategy (WATSS)
What is the Crime Severity Index (CSI) based on?
the average sentence handed out for the offence
What year did the CSI increase in Canada recently, why?
2015; Alberta had a large spike in all kinds of crime
What months are violent incidents most likely to occur?
the summer months and december?
What are 4 patterns of victimization?
2) Lower income
4) Repeat victims
What is the order of severity of killing another person?
1. First degree murder
2. Second degree murder
3. Voluntary manslaughter (sudden passion)
4. Involuntary manslaughter (unintentional negligence)