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1

What is at the core of interactionist theories? What are 2 theories in it's realm?

focus on consequences of interpersonal relations and the idea of a deviant career; labelling theory and differential association

2

Describe symbolic interactionism and it's 3 tenants

focus on how people interpret situations with others; individuals actively create social worlds
1) People act toward objects based on meanings
2) Meanings emerge from interactions
3) Meanings of objects applied and modified in social situations

3

What is labelling theory? Who are the 2 main theorists associated with it?

the idea that deviance is a result of the label that others attach; people commit to labels sometimes; Lement/Becker

4

What is the definition of a career?

a passage of an individual through recognized stages of one or more related identities

5

What happens during primary deviation?

individuals commit deviant acts but fail to adopt a primary self-identity as a deviant

6

What is the concept of drift and who does it usually happen to?

it is the psychology state of weak normative attachment to deviant or conventional ways; people act as a function of immediate circumstances; young people

7

What is a moral rhetoric and what are the 2 types?

it is what deviants use to justify their behavior
1) Egoism: the other person deserved it etc.
2) Instrumental: to show how cunning we are to fool a powerful person kind of idea

8

What is a moral entrepreneur? What is an example of the results of one?

someone who defines new rules or laws or advocates for stricter enforcement; the California 3 strikes law is a result of one of them

9

What is the process by which moral entrepreneurs proceed in forwarding their cause?

1) assert something has a human cause
2) say how it is wrong or immoral
3) stimulate public scrutiny

10

What are the characteristics of secondary deviation?

their way of living is defined by deviance; a lot of the time because it is ascribed that way

11

What is a master status?

it is a status that overrides all other qualities and people are only seen as "that"

12

What are the two reactions to commitment?

1) Self enhancing: feel better about themselves for it; little motivation to leave
2) Self degrading: feel worse about themselves

13

What is differential association theory? Who came up with it?

it is the idea that crime is learned through associations; useful for partial explanations of theft, drug use etc.; Sutherland

14

What is the neo-marxist critique of interactionist theory?

that it fails to relate crime/deviance to the large society and it overlooks the division between the powerful and powerless

15

What is the empiricist critique of interactionist theory?

main labelling theory; that it 1) has a narrow label of deviant (ie. weird religious groups are also)
2) lacks testable propositions; more exploratory rather than confirmatory

16

What is ethnomethodology, who is the founder?

the study of peoples practices or methods; the idea that the social world is not an object reality; it is constantly built and rebuilt; Garfinkel

17

What is the ethnomethodological critique?

that labelling theorists neglect how people make sense of their social world