Flashcards in Chapter 13: Interactionist Theories Deck (17)
What is at the core of interactionist theories? What are 2 theories in it's realm?
focus on consequences of interpersonal relations and the idea of a deviant career; labelling theory and differential association
Describe symbolic interactionism and it's 3 tenants
focus on how people interpret situations with others; individuals actively create social worlds
1) People act toward objects based on meanings
2) Meanings emerge from interactions
3) Meanings of objects applied and modified in social situations
What is labelling theory? Who are the 2 main theorists associated with it?
the idea that deviance is a result of the label that others attach; people commit to labels sometimes; Lement/Becker
What is the definition of a career?
a passage of an individual through recognized stages of one or more related identities
What happens during primary deviation?
individuals commit deviant acts but fail to adopt a primary self-identity as a deviant
What is the concept of drift and who does it usually happen to?
it is the psychology state of weak normative attachment to deviant or conventional ways; people act as a function of immediate circumstances; young people
What is a moral rhetoric and what are the 2 types?
it is what deviants use to justify their behavior
1) Egoism: the other person deserved it etc.
2) Instrumental: to show how cunning we are to fool a powerful person kind of idea
What is a moral entrepreneur? What is an example of the results of one?
someone who defines new rules or laws or advocates for stricter enforcement; the California 3 strikes law is a result of one of them
What is the process by which moral entrepreneurs proceed in forwarding their cause?
1) assert something has a human cause
2) say how it is wrong or immoral
3) stimulate public scrutiny
What are the characteristics of secondary deviation?
their way of living is defined by deviance; a lot of the time because it is ascribed that way
What is a master status?
it is a status that overrides all other qualities and people are only seen as "that"
What are the two reactions to commitment?
1) Self enhancing: feel better about themselves for it; little motivation to leave
2) Self degrading: feel worse about themselves
What is differential association theory? Who came up with it?
it is the idea that crime is learned through associations; useful for partial explanations of theft, drug use etc.; Sutherland
What is the neo-marxist critique of interactionist theory?
that it fails to relate crime/deviance to the large society and it overlooks the division between the powerful and powerless
What is the empiricist critique of interactionist theory?
main labelling theory; that it 1) has a narrow label of deviant (ie. weird religious groups are also)
2) lacks testable propositions; more exploratory rather than confirmatory
What is ethnomethodology, who is the founder?
the study of peoples practices or methods; the idea that the social world is not an object reality; it is constantly built and rebuilt; Garfinkel