Flashcards in Lecture: Response of Democratic States to the Threat of Terrorism Deck (12)
Definition: Security Certificate
anyone not a Canadian citizen can be held on a security certificate if the government can prove they are a threat to Canadian society. Began in 1978 and is controversial because it allows the government to hold someone indefinitely
comes from the latin verbs to tremble and to frighten from. Developed in France during the revolution
furtherance of a political cause is the objective. Includes massacre, genocide, assassination, torture etc.
The calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious or ideological
Four Waves of International Terrorism (David Rapport)
1) Anarchist Wave
2) Anti-colonial wave
3) The "New left wave"
4)The Religious wave
(late 19th, early 20th): refused to recognize authority of monarchs and sought to destroy social order
(1920s) aimed at national self-determination (Irish rebellion of 1919)
The "New Left wave"
(1960s): started with Vietnam war and concerned with the notion that the system was not democratic; fighting for 3rd world masses. Hostage taking was used a lot
The Religious Wave
linked to Iranian revolution (Islam, Sikhs, Punjab); suicide bombings; also happened in Buddhist territories in Asia
Old Immigrations and Refugees Protection Act (IRPA)
included the security certificate idea which allowed the country to contain someone indefinitely. However, this was not used casually
included role of the special advocate who is appointed by the government and scrutinizes evidence to ascertain its reasonableness without sharing any of it with the detainee