Flashcards in Chapter 11: Conflict Theories Deck (40)
Who was the main theorist behind cultural conflict theory?
What is the central idea of cultural conflict theory? What are some examples of it in the real world?
that more complex societies lead to overall less consensus; in particular it leads to conflict between conduct norms of different cultural groups; colonization, migration, immigration
What is a conduct norm?
specific rules or norms of appropriate behavior generally agreed upon by members of the social group to who they apply
What is a criminal norm?
conduct norms in law that represent the dominant group
What view do cultural conflict theorists take regarding criminal law, as in who shapes it?
the dominant groups character/interests
What are 4 typical qualities of honor killings?
1) Women/girl in family
2) Killer does not act alone
3) Suspicion of impropriety is enough
What are the 2 main contributors to group conflict theory?
George Vold and Richard Quinney
What are George Vold's ideas regarding group conflict theory?
criminal behavior results from conflicts between interests of 2 divergent groups
What are two assumptions that Vold makes regarding group conflict theory?
1) Conflict is interest related
2) Humans are "group involved" beings who live according to group association
What does george Vold suggest about the creation of law?
it is a result of conflict between groups and the more powerful determines law
What are the 2 ways in which Vold specifies that crimes arise
1) From conflict between behavior of minority and norms etc. of the majority
2) From conflict between groups vying for power
What was Richard Quinney's focus in group conflict theory?
on conflict between "segments" of society
What were Richard Quinney's original views on the powerful and their interests?
they were able to secure and protect their interests through formulation, enforcement etc. of criminal law; only some groups were able to influence policy
What is the gist of Quinney's 6 propositions in group conflict theory?
that the social reality of crime is constructed by the formulation and application of criminal definitions, the development of behavior patterns related to the definitions and the construction of criminal conceptions
What are 3 main tenants of Marxist conflict perspectives?
1) Crime is analyzed in context of society as a whole
2) Conflict is rooted in a capitalistic society and it's economic relations
3) The idea of the economic ideology being the base (structure) of capitalism and all else kind of being built on that
What is a mode of production?
economic system whereby goods are produced, exchanged and distributed
What are forces of production?
tools, techniques, labor power etc. used in production
What are the social relations of production?
relationships among humans with respect to ownership of means of production
What are the 2 groups that arise in capitalist societies according to marxists?
1) Bourgeoisie: economically dominant
2) Proletariat: economically subordinate
Where do profits come from according to Marxists?
from the difference in value of what workers produce and what they are worth or paid
What is the main idea in instrumental Marxism? What idea does this arise from?
the state and legal systems in capitalist societies serves the interests of the ruling class; the processes of structure (economic base) and superstructure that arises from it
What are some critiques of instrumental Marxism?
1) Portrays the ruling class as a homogenous group
2) Ignores how the ruling class's actions are constrained by structural causes
3) Does not account for legislation not in their favor
4) Overly rigid interpretation of base/super structure metaphor
What is the main idea in Structural Marxism?
the state is viewed as acting in the long-term interests of capitalism as a whole rather than the short term interests of a capitalist class
What is the state said to have in structural marxism? What does it mean?
relative autonomy; they have relative independence from the capitalist class
What do laws demonstrate according to Structural Marxist's?
widespread consent to maintain existing social order and obscures inequality by saying "all are equal"
In theories of crimes of the powerless, who talks about surplus populations? What does that term mean?
Stephen Spitzer; criminalization is directed towards those problem populations who are "surplus" in the labor market
What are the 2 ways problem populations occur according to Spitzer?
1) Directly: new technology and outsourcing
2) Indirectly: schooling that provides students with the ability to realize how broken the system is
What are David Greenberg's theories regarding crimes of the powerless?
Juveniles form a "class" of their own because they share a similar relationship to means of production (can't legally work but want to)
What are 3 critiques of Structural marxism?
1) it is tautological
2) it emphasizes the structure at the expense of human agency
3) it forgets gender and race oppression