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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (60):
1

Study and treatment of the integumentary system

Dermatology

2

What are the functions of the integumentary system?

Protection, excretion, temperature regulation, produce melanin, produce keratin, immune function, sensation

3

What does the skin protect against?

impact, abrasion, chemicals, water loss, water gain

4

What does the skin glands excrete?

salt, water, organic waste

5

Conserves heat

vasoconstrict

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lose heat

vasodilate

7

protects from UV radiation

melanin

8

protects abrasion and is water resistant

keratin

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steroid important for calcium metabolism

vitamin D3

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what types of sensation does the integumentary system feel?

touch, pressure, pain, temperature

11

serves as a energy reservoir and provides insulation

hypodermis

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fiber that provides strong stretch resistance

collagen

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fiber that permits stretching and recoiling

elastic fiber

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what fibers does the dermis contain?

collagen and elastic

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what are the 2 layers of the dermis?

papillary, reticular

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deep layer of dense irregular connective tissue

reticular layer

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superficial layer of areolar connective tissue; nipple like projections that interlock with the epidermis

papillary

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made up of stratified squamous epithelium

epidermis

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single layer at the bottom of the epidermis

stratum basale

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stem cells which divide to replace lost or shed superficial keratinocytes

basale cell

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cells for sense of touch

merkel

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produces pigment to protect from UV radiation

melanin

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contains cells called epidermal dentritic cells; 8-10 layers of keratinocytes held together with desmosomes

stratum spinosum

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cells make a large amount of keratin and become thinner as nuclei and organelles disintegrate

stratum granulosum

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clear layer that is only seen in palms and soles

stratum lucidum

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top most layer of epidermis; made up of dead keratinized cells

stratum corneum

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protein in red blood cells that turn bring red when bound with oxygen

hemoglobin

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what is the amount of melanin determined by?

heredity and light exposure

29

yellow-orange pigment acquired from yellow-orange vegetables

carotene

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recessive trait that results in enzymes needed to produce melanin to be nonfunctional

albinism

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localized overgrowth of melanocytes

moles

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localized increase in melanocyte activity

freckles

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folds and valleys in dermis and epidermis to increase friction in fingers, toes, palms, and soles

friction ridges

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dead keratinized cells growing from a hair follicle

hair

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fine, unpigmented downy hair on fetus in third trimester

lanugo hair

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fine, unpigmented/ lightly pigmented hair on limbs

vellus hair

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coarse, pigmented hair on scalp, eyebrows, eyelids, etc.

terminal hair

38

what are the functions of hair?

protection, facial expression, heat retention, sensory reception, visual identification, chemical signal dispersal

39

how is the hair shaft elevated?

contracting arrector pillae

40

when is the hair shaft elevated?

stage of fear, cold temperatures

41

oil glands

sebaceous

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oil which coats and lubricates hair shaft

sebum

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merocrine gland secreting a watery solution for flushing epidermal surface

sweat glands

44

what are the 2 types of sweat glands?

apocrine and merocrine

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where are apocrine sweat glands found?

armpit, nipples, groin, anus

46

what method does apocrine sweat glands use?

merocrine

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complex viscous secretion for olfactory communication

apocrine

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where are merocrine sweat glands found?

throughout the skin

49

what is the apocrine controlled by?

endocrine system

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what is the merocrine controlled by?

nervous sytem

51

secretes watery solution for thermoregulation and excretion

merocrine sweat glands

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keratinized sweat cells which are tightly compacted

nails

53

what are the functions of nails?

protects tips of fingers and toes from mechanical stress

54

vitamin D3 is also known as...

cholecalciferol

55

required for normal absorption for calcium and phosphorus

calcitriol

56

what happens if there is not enough calcitriol?

bone growth and maintenance would be impaired

57

bones lack rigidity since bones lack the necessary amount of calcium and phosphorus

rickets

58

what is rickets caused by?

no exposure to sunlight or vitamin D3 in diet

59

what are 2 ways that the integumentary system repairs itself?

regeneration, fibrosis

60

what are the 4 steps to fibrosis?

bleeding occurs, blood clot forms blocking pathogens, blood vessels regenerate and granulation tissue forms, epithelium regenerates and form scar tissue