Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (60):
Study and treatment of the integumentary system
What are the functions of the integumentary system?
Protection, excretion, temperature regulation, produce melanin, produce keratin, immune function, sensation
What does the skin protect against?
impact, abrasion, chemicals, water loss, water gain
What does the skin glands excrete?
salt, water, organic waste
protects from UV radiation
protects abrasion and is water resistant
steroid important for calcium metabolism
what types of sensation does the integumentary system feel?
touch, pressure, pain, temperature
serves as a energy reservoir and provides insulation
fiber that provides strong stretch resistance
fiber that permits stretching and recoiling
what fibers does the dermis contain?
collagen and elastic
what are the 2 layers of the dermis?
deep layer of dense irregular connective tissue
superficial layer of areolar connective tissue; nipple like projections that interlock with the epidermis
made up of stratified squamous epithelium
single layer at the bottom of the epidermis
stem cells which divide to replace lost or shed superficial keratinocytes
cells for sense of touch
produces pigment to protect from UV radiation
contains cells called epidermal dentritic cells; 8-10 layers of keratinocytes held together with desmosomes
cells make a large amount of keratin and become thinner as nuclei and organelles disintegrate
clear layer that is only seen in palms and soles
top most layer of epidermis; made up of dead keratinized cells
protein in red blood cells that turn bring red when bound with oxygen
what is the amount of melanin determined by?
heredity and light exposure
yellow-orange pigment acquired from yellow-orange vegetables
recessive trait that results in enzymes needed to produce melanin to be nonfunctional
localized overgrowth of melanocytes
localized increase in melanocyte activity
folds and valleys in dermis and epidermis to increase friction in fingers, toes, palms, and soles
dead keratinized cells growing from a hair follicle
fine, unpigmented downy hair on fetus in third trimester
fine, unpigmented/ lightly pigmented hair on limbs
coarse, pigmented hair on scalp, eyebrows, eyelids, etc.
what are the functions of hair?
protection, facial expression, heat retention, sensory reception, visual identification, chemical signal dispersal
how is the hair shaft elevated?
contracting arrector pillae
when is the hair shaft elevated?
stage of fear, cold temperatures
oil which coats and lubricates hair shaft
merocrine gland secreting a watery solution for flushing epidermal surface
what are the 2 types of sweat glands?
apocrine and merocrine
where are apocrine sweat glands found?
armpit, nipples, groin, anus
what method does apocrine sweat glands use?
complex viscous secretion for olfactory communication
where are merocrine sweat glands found?
throughout the skin
what is the apocrine controlled by?
what is the merocrine controlled by?
secretes watery solution for thermoregulation and excretion
merocrine sweat glands
keratinized sweat cells which are tightly compacted
what are the functions of nails?
protects tips of fingers and toes from mechanical stress
vitamin D3 is also known as...
required for normal absorption for calcium and phosphorus
what happens if there is not enough calcitriol?
bone growth and maintenance would be impaired
bones lack rigidity since bones lack the necessary amount of calcium and phosphorus
what is rickets caused by?
no exposure to sunlight or vitamin D3 in diet
what are 2 ways that the integumentary system repairs itself?