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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (57):
1

What is the function of the skeletal system?

Protection and support

2

Blood cell production

Hemopoiesis

3

where does hemopoiesis occur?

red bone marrow

4

where are lipids stored?

yellow bone marrow

5

what minerals do bones store?

calcium and phosphorus

6

Bones of skull, thorax, and vertebral column

axial

7

bones of girdles and limbs

appendicular

8

cap bones at joints

articular cartilage

9

connects ribs to sternum

costal cartilage

10

holds respiratory tract open

respiratory cartilage

11

supports external nose

nasal cartilage

12

what are the 3 types of cartilage found in the skeletal system?

hyaline, elastic fibrous

13

what are the 4 types of bones?

long, flat, irregular, short

14

what are some examples of flat bones?

roof of skull, sternum, ribs, scapula

15

what are some examples of long bones?

femur, humerus, ulna, radius, etc

16

what are some examples of irregular bones?

vertebrae, pelvic bone, spheroid, sutural, ethmoidal

17

what are some examples of short bones?

carpals, tarsals, sesamoid

18

mature bone cell

osteocyte

19

what is the function of osteocytes?

chemically dissolve bone matrix and rebuild bone

20

how do osteocytes pass down nutrients

canaliculi

21

bone builders

osteoblasts

22

what is the function of osteoblasts?

production of bone matrix

23

organic compound that is released by osteoblasts

osteoid

24

stem cells

osteoprogenitors

25

where are osteoprogenitors found?

periosteum and endosteum

26

what is the function of osteoprogenitors?

divide to create osteoblasts

27

break down bone

Osteoclasts

28

where doe osteoclasts come from?

stem cells of phagocytes

29

where are osteoclasts found?

resorption lacuna

30

what are the 2 types of bone tissue?

compact and spongy

31

what are compact bones composed of?

osteons

32

what are spongy bones composed of?

trabeculae

33

growing in length

interstitial growth

34

what are the steps of interstitial cartilage growth?

chondrocyte divides to create chondroblast

chondroblasts synthesize and secrete new cartilage and move apart.

chondroblasts move into their own lacunae and become chondrocytes

35

Growing in width

appositional growth

36

what are the steps of appositional cartilage growth?

stem cell in perichondrium divide to create chondroblasts

new chondroblasts and periphery synthesize and create new cartilage

chondroblasts move into their own lacunae and become chondrocytes

37

forms majority of bones

endochondral ossification

38

what are the steps of endochondral ossification?

1. hyaline cartilage model
2. chondrocytes calcify
3. blood vessels arrives at edge and superficial collar forms
4. blood supply penetrates and creates primary ossification center
5. remodeling occurs and medullary cavity is formed
6. secondary ossification center appears at epiphyses and lays down spongy bone
7. epiphyseal plate continues to grow and lengthen bone
8. epiphyseal closure

39

forms dermal bones

intramembranous ossification

40

what are the steps to intramembranous ossification?

1. osteoblasts within thickened regions of mesenchyme lay down bone forming woven bone
2. osteoblasts get trapped and become osteocytes
3. mesenchyme form periosteum
4. woven bone is replaced by secondary bone

41

how is interstitial growth done in bone?

adding bone to epiphyseal plate

42

how is appositional growth done in bone?

add bone within periosteum

43

what 3 hormones affect bone remodeling?

growth, thyroid, sex

44

increases cartilage in epiphyseal plate

growth hormone

45

stimulates osteoblasts

thyroid hormone

46

promote calcium deposition in bone

sex hormone

47

disease resulting in decreased bone mass and leads to weakened bones which are prone to fracture

osteoporosis

48

what physiological processes is calcium involved in?

muscle contraction, release of neurotransmitters, blood clotting

49

how does the body increase blood calcium levels?

release parathyroid hormone

50

osteoclast activity increases breaking down bone to release stored calcium into blood

bone response (low Ca in blood)

51

increase calcium absorption rate

intestinal response (low Ca in blood)

52

reabsorb calcium so less is lost in urine

kidney response (low Ca in blood)

53

how does the body decrease blood calcium levels?

release calcitonin from the thyroid gland

54

inhibits osteoclasts from breaking down bone

bone response (too much Ca)

55

decrease in parathyroid and calcitriol levels result in slower rate in calcium absorption

intestinal response (too much Ca)

56

decrease amount of calcitriol released

kidney response (too much Ca)

57

Intermediate product that kidneys make

Calcitriol