Flashcards in Chapter 12 (Part 1) Deck (96):
What are the general functions of the nervous system?
collect information, monitor change, process and evaluate information, integrate information, initiate response
What makes up the CNS?
brain and spinal cord
Where is the CNS located?
within skull and vertebral canal
What are the functions of the CNS?
Information processing, coordinating and distributing commands, memory storage
What makes up the PNS?
Nerves and ganglion
Collection of axons in the PNS
Collection of cell bodies in the PNS
Where is the PNS located?
Throughout body except brain and spinal cord
What are the functions of the PNS?
Relay sensory to CNS, relay motor from CNS
Relay sensory information gained from receptors to CNS
Sensory (Afferent) Nervous System
Sensory structures which detect changes
Detects timely we consciously perceive
What are the general senses somatic sensory detects?
Position, touch, temperature, pressure, pain
What are the special senses somatic sensory detects?
Taste, hear, smell, sight, balance
Detect stimuli we typically do not perceive
What types of information does visceral sensory perceive?
Internal organs, homeostasis
Initiates and transmits commands from CNS to effectors
Motor (efferent) nervous system
Target organs whose activities are directly changed by neural commands
Where are effectors located?
What are the 2 divisions of the motor nervous system?
Somatic and autonomic
Voluntary/ conscious control
What effectors are in the somatic nervous system?
What effectors are in the autonomic nervous system?
Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands
What are the 2 divisions of the autonomic nervous system?
Functional unit of the nervous system
Stimuli generates local changes in the resting membrane potential
Electrical change can be quickly sent down the cell membrane using voltage gated channels
Release neurotransmitters in response to electrical change
Most neurons formed in fetal development function throughout life
Majority of neurons do not divide
Slender processes which receive stimuli
Fine processes at the end of dendrites
What part of the dendrite is where most information is received?
Contains nucleus and other organelles
What are the functions of the soma?
neuron control center, relay graded potentials to axon
Carries information in form of an electrical impulse, action potential to other cells
Base of axon where it attaches to the cell body
Specialized plasma membrane of the axon
Branching of axon at distal end to increase contact points for communication
End of axon where neurotransmitters are stored in vesicles
Moves material from soma to synaptic knob
Moves material from synaptic knob to soma
Small cells with all processes looking alike
What can anaxonic neurons relay?
Cell body lays off to the side of along continuous process which fuses the dendrites directly to the axon
Unipolar neurons make up majority of ___ neurons
Small cells with 2 distinct processes
Where are bipolar neurons located?
Sense organs for sight and smell
Have multiple processes coming of cell body with one being a distinct axon
Where are multipolar neurons located?
Carry signals from receptors to CNS
What type of neurons are most afferent neurons?
Cell bodies of multiple neurons grouping together
Collection of sensory ganglion in the PNS
What types of information do somatic sensory neurons carry?
Outside world, proprioception
What types of information do visceral sensory neurons carry?
Internal conditions, organ systems
Communication link between neurons
Interneurons/ Association nuerons
Where are interneurons located?
What is the function of interneurons?
Higher functions (memory, planning, learning), distributes sensory information received from sensory neuron for association/integration and coordinates response
Carry commands from CNS to effectors
What are the 2 types of efferent neurons?
Somatic motor, visceral motor
Where do somatic motor neurons carry information to?
What part of the nervous system is the somatic motor neuron of
Where do visceral motor neurons carry information to?
Glands, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle
What part of the nervous system are visceral motor neurons part of?
Bundle of axons in the PNS
dense irregular connective tissue around whole nerve
Dense irregular connective tissue around fascicles
Areolar connective tissue around Schwann cells and axon
What are the 2 structural nerve classifications?
Cranial and spinal
What are the 2 functional nerve classifications?
Sensory and motor
Carry sensory info from receptors to CNS
Carry commands from CNS to effector
Carry both sensory and motor information in opposite directions
Cells which support and protect neurons
Line fluid filled passageways of the CNS to produce, monitor, circulate cerebral spinal fluid
Provides protective cushion for brain and circulates gases, nutrients and wastes throughout CNS
Cerebral spinal fluid
Enlarged chambers within the brain
Opening connecting the lateral ventricles with the 3rd ventricle
Passageway connecting the 3rd ventricle with the 4th ventricle
Narrow passageway throughout the spinal cord
Move throughout the CNS to phagocytize cellular debris, waste, and pathogens
Largest and most numerous of glia in the CNS
What are the functions of the astrocyte?
structural support, absorb and recycle neurotransmitters, neural development, form scar tissue, separate CNS from chemicals in blood
Stabilize position of axons in CNS as well as producing myelin
Membranous wrapping coating axon to increase speed of signal
Gap between myelin
High concentration of axons
High concentration of cell bodies and dendrites
Forms myelin sheath around axons in PNS
Surround cell bodies in the ganglia to regulate environment around them in the PNS
What are the 2 types of neuroglia in the PNS?
Schwann cells and satellite cells