Chapter 12 (Part 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12 (Part 1) Deck (96):
1

What are the general functions of the nervous system?

collect information, monitor change, process and evaluate information, integrate information, initiate response

2

What makes up the CNS?

brain and spinal cord

3

Where is the CNS located?

within skull and vertebral canal

4

What are the functions of the CNS?

Information processing, coordinating and distributing commands, memory storage

5

What makes up the PNS?

Nerves and ganglion

6

Collection of axons in the PNS

Nerve

7

Collection of cell bodies in the PNS

Ganglion

8

Where is the PNS located?

Throughout body except brain and spinal cord

9

What are the functions of the PNS?

Relay sensory to CNS, relay motor from CNS

10

Relay sensory information gained from receptors to CNS

Sensory (Afferent) Nervous System

11

Sensory structures which detect changes

Receptors

12

Detects timely we consciously perceive

Somatic sensory

13

What are the general senses somatic sensory detects?

Position, touch, temperature, pressure, pain

14

What are the special senses somatic sensory detects?

Taste, hear, smell, sight, balance

15

Detect stimuli we typically do not perceive

Visceral sensory

16

What types of information does visceral sensory perceive?

Internal organs, homeostasis

17

Initiates and transmits commands from CNS to effectors

Motor (efferent) nervous system

18

Target organs whose activities are directly changed by neural commands

Effectors

19

Where are effectors located?

Muscles, glands

20

What are the 2 divisions of the motor nervous system?

Somatic and autonomic

21

Voluntary/ conscious control

Somatic

22

Involuntary/unconscious control

Autonomic

23

What effectors are in the somatic nervous system?

skeletal muscles

24

What effectors are in the autonomic nervous system?

Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands

25

What are the 2 divisions of the autonomic nervous system?

Sympathetic, parasympathetic

26

Functional unit of the nervous system

Neuron

27

Stimuli generates local changes in the resting membrane potential

Excitability

28

Electrical change can be quickly sent down the cell membrane using voltage gated channels

Conductivity

29

Release neurotransmitters in response to electrical change

Secretion

30

Most neurons formed in fetal development function throughout life

Extreme Longevity

31

Majority of neurons do not divide

Amitotic

32

Slender processes which receive stimuli

Dendrites

33

Fine processes at the end of dendrites

Dendritic spines

34

What part of the dendrite is where most information is received?

Dendritic spine

35

Contains nucleus and other organelles

Soma

36

What are the functions of the soma?

neuron control center, relay graded potentials to axon

37

Carries information in form of an electrical impulse, action potential to other cells

Axon

38

Base of axon where it attaches to the cell body

Axon hillock

39

Specialized plasma membrane of the axon

Axolemma

40

Branching of axon at distal end to increase contact points for communication

Axon terminal

41

End of axon where neurotransmitters are stored in vesicles

Synaptic knob

42

Moves material from soma to synaptic knob

Anterograde transport

43

Moves material from synaptic knob to soma

Retrograde transport

44

Small cells with all processes looking alike

Anaxonic

45

What can anaxonic neurons relay?

Graded potentials

46

Cell body lays off to the side of along continuous process which fuses the dendrites directly to the axon

Unipolar

47

Unipolar neurons make up majority of ___ neurons

sensory

48

Small cells with 2 distinct processes

Bipolar

49

Where are bipolar neurons located?

Sense organs for sight and smell

50

Have multiple processes coming of cell body with one being a distinct axon

Multipolar

51

Where are multipolar neurons located?

CNS

52

Carry signals from receptors to CNS

Afferent neurons

53

What type of neurons are most afferent neurons?

Unipolar

54

Cell bodies of multiple neurons grouping together

Sensory ganglion

55

Collection of sensory ganglion in the PNS

Ganglion

56

What types of information do somatic sensory neurons carry?

Outside world, proprioception

57

What types of information do visceral sensory neurons carry?

Internal conditions, organ systems

58

Communication link between neurons

Interneurons/ Association nuerons

59

Where are interneurons located?

CNS

60

What is the function of interneurons?

Higher functions (memory, planning, learning), distributes sensory information received from sensory neuron for association/integration and coordinates response

61

Carry commands from CNS to effectors

efferent neurons

62

What are the 2 types of efferent neurons?

Somatic motor, visceral motor

63

Consciously control

Somatic motor

64

Where do somatic motor neurons carry information to?

skeletal muscle

65

What part of the nervous system is the somatic motor neuron of

somatic

66

Involuntary control

Visceral motor

67

Where do visceral motor neurons carry information to?

Glands, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle

68

What part of the nervous system are visceral motor neurons part of?

autonomic

69

Bundle of axons in the PNS

nerve

70

dense irregular connective tissue around whole nerve

Epineurium

71

Dense irregular connective tissue around fascicles

Perineurium

72

Areolar connective tissue around Schwann cells and axon

Endoneurium

73

What are the 2 structural nerve classifications?

Cranial and spinal

74

What are the 2 functional nerve classifications?

Sensory and motor

75

Carry sensory info from receptors to CNS

Sensory nerves

76

Carry commands from CNS to effector

Motor nerves

77

Carry both sensory and motor information in opposite directions

Mixed nerves

78

Cells which support and protect neurons

Neuroglia

79

Line fluid filled passageways of the CNS to produce, monitor, circulate cerebral spinal fluid

Ependymal cells

80

Provides protective cushion for brain and circulates gases, nutrients and wastes throughout CNS

Cerebral spinal fluid

81

Enlarged chambers within the brain

Ventricles

82

Opening connecting the lateral ventricles with the 3rd ventricle

Interventricular foramen

83

Passageway connecting the 3rd ventricle with the 4th ventricle

Cerebral aqueduct

84

Narrow passageway throughout the spinal cord

Central canal

85

Move throughout the CNS to phagocytize cellular debris, waste, and pathogens

Microglia

86

Largest and most numerous of glia in the CNS

Astrocyte

87

What are the functions of the astrocyte?

structural support, absorb and recycle neurotransmitters, neural development, form scar tissue, separate CNS from chemicals in blood

88

Stabilize position of axons in CNS as well as producing myelin

Oligodendrocyte

89

Membranous wrapping coating axon to increase speed of signal

Myelin

90

Gap between myelin

Node

91

High concentration of axons

White matter

92

High concentration of cell bodies and dendrites

Gray matter

93

Forms myelin sheath around axons in PNS

Schwann cells

94

Surround cell bodies in the ganglia to regulate environment around them in the PNS

Satellite cells

95

What are the 2 types of neuroglia in the PNS?

Schwann cells and satellite cells

96

Group of axons

Fascicles