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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (48)
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1
Q

Neoplasia

A
  • means new growth

- implies abnormality of cellular growth

2
Q

Malignant

A
  • a tumor that can kill the host if untreated
  • can be invasive or metastisizing
  • cancer is graded on a 1-4 level (1 closely resembling original tissue while 4 looks nothing like it)
  • rapid growth
  • dysfunctional
3
Q

Invasive

A

spreads to nearby tissues

4
Q

metastasizing

A

spreads all over the body

5
Q

angiogenesis

A

caused by angiogenic proteins; formation of new blood vessels from previous ones in otder to help cancer grow

6
Q

Benign

A

cannot kill host on its own but can be life threatening due to location

  • slow growth
  • does not spread
  • encapsulated
7
Q
  • oma
A

a suffix that indicates a benign tumor

8
Q
  • carcinoma

- sarcoma

A

suffixes that indicate malignant tumors

9
Q

Carcinoma

A

tumor has an epithelial origin (skin or membrane)

10
Q

Sarcoma

A

tumor has a mesenchymal origin (nerve, bone, or muscle)

11
Q

Malignant tumor exceptions to naming rule

A

lymphomas, hepatomas, melanomas

12
Q

Lifestyle factors that contribute to cancer risk

A
tobacco use
nutrition
obesity
sun exposure (skin cancer)
sexual exposure (cervical cancer)
13
Q

Two types of carcinogens

A

Initiator (causes genetic damage)

promoter (promotes tumor growth)

14
Q

Carcinogen

A

a potential cancer causing agent

15
Q

Proto-oncogene

A

enhances growth producing pathways

16
Q

oncogene

A

a proto oncogene in its mutant overactive form (cancerous form)

17
Q

Tumor suppressor gene

A

inhibits cell proliferation

cancers arise when suppressor gene function is lost or abnormally inhibited

18
Q

Types of Retroviruses

A

HIV - kaposi’s sacrcoma
Epstein-Barr virus - burkitt lymphoma
Human T-lymphocyte virus type 1 - adult t cell leukemia/lymphoma

19
Q

Retrovirus

A

a virus composed of RNA that contains the reverse transcriptase enzyme

20
Q

The Rb gene

A

normally functions as the “master brake” for the cell cycle
blocks/stops cell division
inactivated Rb genes are common in some cancers

21
Q

p53 gene

A

the most common tumor suppressor gene defect indentified in cancer cells
Normally inhibits cell cycling after DNA damage

22
Q

BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes

A

tumor suppressor genes that are associated with breast cancer

23
Q

The multistep nature of carcinogenesis

A

initiation, promotion, and progression

24
Q

Initiation

A

events in this stage include genetic mutations and proliferation

25
Q

Complete carcinogen

A

capable of initiating cell damage and promoting cellular proliferation

26
Q

Partial carcinogens

A

stimulate growth but unable to cause significant genetic mutations

27
Q

Promotion

A

stage during which mutant cell proliferates. Cancer cells produce telomerase (allows for immortality)

  • another oncogene is activated
  • tumor suppressor gene is inactivate
  • infection
  • nutritional factors
28
Q

Progression

A

the mutant proliferating cells begin to exhibit malignant behaviors

29
Q

Tumor Markers

A

help to identify the parent issue of cancer origin

30
Q

Types of tumor markers

A
CA 125 - ovarian 
CA19-9 - pancreatic 
CEA - mainly colon but can be many different cancers 
PSA - prostate 
BRCA 1&2 - breast
31
Q

Grading and staging of tumors

A

used to predict the clinical behavior of malignant tumor and help guide theraputic management

32
Q

Staging

A

depends on

  • location and patterns of spread within the host
  • tumor size
  • extent of local growth
  • lymph node and organ involvement
  • distant metastasis
33
Q

TNM system

A

T - tumor
N - nodes involved
M - Metastasis

34
Q

Effects of cancer on the body

A

Depends on location of tumor and extent of metastasis
early stages may be asymptomatic
as tumor increases in size and spreads, more symptoms apparent

35
Q

General Warning signs: C.A.U.T.I.O.N.

A

C - Change in bowel or bladder habits
A - A sore that does not heal
U - Unusual bleeding or discharge
T - Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere
I - Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
O - Obvious change in wart or mole
N - Nagging cough or hoarseness

36
Q

Warning signs in C.H.I.L.D.R.E.N.

A

C - Continued unexplained weight loss
H - Headaches with vomiting in the morning
I - Increased swelling/persistent pain in bones/joints
L - Lump or mass in abdomen, neck, or elswhere
D - Development of whitish appearance in pupil
R - Recurrent fevers not caused by infections
E - Excessive bleeding or bruising
N - Noticeable paleness or prolonged tiredness

37
Q

Cachexia

A

overall weight loss and generalized weakness

38
Q

Leukopenia

A

Deficiency in circulating white blood cells. Can cause changes in chemotherapy treatment due to low WBC count

39
Q

Thrombocytopenia

A

Deficiency in circulating platelets. causes trouble with clotting

40
Q

Pancytopenia

A

the presence of anemia, leukopenia, and throbocytopenia at the same time

41
Q

Paraneoplastic syndromes

A

tumor production of hormones or cytokines

  • hypercalcemia
  • Cushing syndrome (ACTH secretion)
  • Hyponatremia and water overload (ADH secretion)
  • SADH (syndrome of anti diuretic hormone)
42
Q

Cancer Therapy

A
Mainstays 
 -surgery
 -radiation therapy 
 -drug/chemo therapy 
Emerging 
 -immunotherapy 
 -targeted molecular therapies
 -stem cell transplantation
43
Q

Surgery

A
  • removal of solid tumors

- commonly accompanied by radiation or chemo therapy

44
Q

Radiation Therapy

A
  • kills tumor cells by damaging DNA
  • kills cells that were missed by surgery or undetected
  • some normal cells are killed as well
45
Q

Drug therapy

A
  • the systemic administration of anticancer chemicals to treat cancers known or suspected to be disseminated in the body
  • can also cause normal cell death
  • very effective on rapidly dividing cells
  • causes bone marrow suppression
46
Q

Immunotherapy

A

involves the use of interferons, interlukins, and monoclonal antibodies. Used in conjunction with surgery, irradiation, and chemo

47
Q

Adjuvant Therapy

A

therapy used in conjunction with other things

48
Q

Stem cell transplantation

A

used to manage life threatening disorders in which patients bone marrow cannot manufacture wbc’s, rbc’s, or platelets. Provides a method to restore bone marrow function