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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (38)
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1
Q

Hydrophobic swelling

A
cellular swelling due to accumulation of water
 - first manifestation of most 
   forms of reversible cell injury
 - comes from malfunction of 
   NaK+ pump
 - any injury that results in loss 
   of ATP will also result in it
2
Q

Characteristics of hydrophobic swelling

A
  • large pale cytoplasm
  • dilated ER
  • Swollen mitochondria
  • increase in size and weight
3
Q

Intracellular accumulaions

A

excess accumulations of substances in cells. Can lead to cellular injury due to :

  • toxicity
  • immune response
  • taking up cellular space
4
Q

Characteristics of Intracellular Accumulations

A
  • accumulation of excessive amounts of normal intracellulat substance
  • accumulation of abnormal substances from faulty metabolism or synthesis
  • accumulation of pigment or particles that cell is unable to degrade
  • common site of accumulation ; liver
  • limit protein damage; chaperone proteins and ubiquitin-proteosome complex
5
Q

Atrophy

A

cells shrink and reduce their differentiated functions in response to normal an injurious factors

6
Q

General causes of Atrophy

A
  • disuse
  • denervation
  • ischemia
  • nutrient starvation
  • interruption of endocrine signal
  • persistent cell injury
7
Q

Hypertrophy

A

Increase in cell mass accompanied by an augmented functional capacity in response to physiologic and pathophysiologic demands

8
Q

General cause of hypertrophy

A

increased cellular protein content

9
Q

Hyperplasia

A

increase in the functional capacity related to an increase in cell number due to mitotic division

10
Q

Causes of Hyperplasia

A
  • usually in response to increased physiologic demands or normal hormonal stimulation
  • persistent cell injury
  • chronic irritation of epithelial cells
11
Q

Metaplasia

A

Replacement of one differentiated cell type with another

12
Q

Cause of Metaplasia

A

adaptation to persistent injury, with replacement of a cell type that is better suited to tolerate injurious stimulation (smokers)
(is fully reversible)

13
Q

Dysplasia

A
Disorganized appearance of cells because of abnormal variations in size, shape, and arrangement 
 - represents an adaptive effort 
   gone astray
 - significant potential to 
   transform into cancerous cell
14
Q

Necrosis (irreversible)

A

usually occurs as a consequence of ischemia or toxic injury (cell death)

15
Q

Coagulative Necrosis

A
  • process that begins with ischemia

- ends with degradation of plasma membrane

16
Q

Liquefactive Necrosis

A
  • occurs with dissolution of dead cells
  • liquification of lysosomal enzymes
  • formation of abscess or cyst from dissolved dead tissue
17
Q

Fat Necrosis

A
  • death of adipose tissue
  • usually the result of trauma or pancreatitis
  • appears as a chalky white area of tissue
18
Q

Caseous Necrosis

A
  • characteristic of lung damage secondary to tuberculosis

- resembles clumpy cheese

19
Q

Reversible Cellular Damage

A
  • includes hypertrophy, hyperplasia, atrophy, metaplasia, and dysplasia
  • characterized by cell rupture, spilling of contents into extracellular fluid, and inflammation
20
Q

Gangrene

A
  • cellular death in a large area of tissue

- results from the interruption of blood supply to a particular part of the body

21
Q

Dry gangrene

A

a form of coagulative necrosis characterized by blackened, dry, wrinkled tissue separated by a line of demarcation from healthy tissue

22
Q

Wet gangrene

A

a form of liquefactive necrosis that is typically found in internal organs. Can be fatal

23
Q

Gas Gangrene

A

Results from the infection of necrotic tissue by the anaerobic bacteria clostridium. Characterized by the formation of gas bubbles in damaged muscle tissue. Can be fatal

24
Q

Apoptosis

A

Occurs when an injury does not directly kill the cell. Cell suicide. Doesn’t cause inflammation

25
Q

Local and systemic indicators of cell death (necrosis)

A
  • pain
  • ELEVATED SERUM ENZYME LEVELS
  • Inflammation
  • loss of function
26
Q

Troponin

A

troponin levels are tested to confirm heart attack

27
Q

Types of necrosis as related to tissue type

A

Heart(coagulative)
Brain(liquefactive)
Lung(caseous)
Pancreas(fat)

28
Q

Lipase

A

levels are checked when abdominal pain is present

29
Q

Tissue Hypoxia

A

most often caused by ischemia; causes power failure in the cell (mitochondrial death). Disrupts oxygen supply and accumulates metabolic waste
(tissue hypoxia to the whole body is less likely to cause death than hypoxia to a specific area)

30
Q

Ischemia

A
  • a restriction in blood supply to tissue
  • cellular events that lead to lactic acidosis (a rise in lactic acid that causes damage to the cell)
  • can be reversible up to a point
31
Q

Reperfusion

A

when a blockage is removed and there is a rush of oxygenated blood to the ischemic area. This causes damage to the cell through calcium overload, formation of free radicals, and inflammation

32
Q

Common causes of malnutrition

A
poverty
chronic alcoholism 
acute/chronic illness
self imposed dietary restrictions 
malabsorption syndromes
33
Q

Weight numbers

A

BMI > 27 = health risk (overweight)

BMI > 30 = obesity

34
Q

Factors of physical and mechanical injury

A
extreme temps
abrupt changes in atmosphereic pressure 
mechanical deformation 
electricity
ionizing radiation
35
Q
  • emia
A

coming from or of the blood

36
Q
  • tosis
A

abnormal or diseased condition

37
Q

Somatic Death

A
death of the entire organism. Results in: 
 - Rigormortis 
 - release of lytic enzymes in    
   body tissues (postmortem     
   autolysis)
 - Brain death
38
Q

Rigor Mortis

A

presence of stiffened muscles throughout body after death