Chapter 4 Flashcards Preview

Pathophysiology > Chapter 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (38):
1

Hydrophobic swelling

cellular swelling due to accumulation of water
- first manifestation of most
forms of reversible cell injury
- comes from malfunction of
NaK+ pump
- any injury that results in loss
of ATP will also result in it

2

Characteristics of hydrophobic swelling

- large pale cytoplasm
- dilated ER
- Swollen mitochondria
- increase in size and weight

3

Intracellular accumulaions

excess accumulations of substances in cells. Can lead to cellular injury due to :
- toxicity
- immune response
- taking up cellular space

4

Characteristics of Intracellular Accumulations

- accumulation of excessive amounts of normal intracellulat substance
- accumulation of abnormal substances from faulty metabolism or synthesis
- accumulation of pigment or particles that cell is unable to degrade
- common site of accumulation ; liver
- limit protein damage; chaperone proteins and ubiquitin-proteosome complex

5

Atrophy

cells shrink and reduce their differentiated functions in response to normal an injurious factors

6

General causes of Atrophy

- disuse
- denervation
- ischemia
- nutrient starvation
- interruption of endocrine signal
- persistent cell injury

7

Hypertrophy

Increase in cell mass accompanied by an augmented functional capacity in response to physiologic and pathophysiologic demands

8

General cause of hypertrophy

increased cellular protein content

9

Hyperplasia

increase in the functional capacity related to an increase in cell number due to mitotic division

10

Causes of Hyperplasia

- usually in response to increased physiologic demands or normal hormonal stimulation
- persistent cell injury
- chronic irritation of epithelial cells

11

Metaplasia

Replacement of one differentiated cell type with another

12

Cause of Metaplasia

adaptation to persistent injury, with replacement of a cell type that is better suited to tolerate injurious stimulation (smokers)
(is fully reversible)

13

Dysplasia

Disorganized appearance of cells because of abnormal variations in size, shape, and arrangement
- represents an adaptive effort
gone astray
- significant potential to
transform into cancerous cell

14

Necrosis (irreversible)

usually occurs as a consequence of ischemia or toxic injury (cell death)

15

Coagulative Necrosis

- process that begins with ischemia
- ends with degradation of plasma membrane

16

Liquefactive Necrosis

- occurs with dissolution of dead cells
- liquification of lysosomal enzymes
- formation of abscess or cyst from dissolved dead tissue

17

Fat Necrosis

- death of adipose tissue
- usually the result of trauma or pancreatitis
- appears as a chalky white area of tissue

18

Caseous Necrosis

- characteristic of lung damage secondary to tuberculosis
- resembles clumpy cheese

19

Reversible Cellular Damage

- includes hypertrophy, hyperplasia, atrophy, metaplasia, and dysplasia
- characterized by cell rupture, spilling of contents into extracellular fluid, and inflammation

20

Gangrene

- cellular death in a large area of tissue
- results from the interruption of blood supply to a particular part of the body

21

Dry gangrene

a form of coagulative necrosis characterized by blackened, dry, wrinkled tissue separated by a line of demarcation from healthy tissue

22

Wet gangrene

a form of liquefactive necrosis that is typically found in internal organs. Can be fatal

23

Gas Gangrene

Results from the infection of necrotic tissue by the anaerobic bacteria clostridium. Characterized by the formation of gas bubbles in damaged muscle tissue. Can be fatal

24

Apoptosis

Occurs when an injury does not directly kill the cell. Cell suicide. Doesn't cause inflammation

25

Local and systemic indicators of cell death (necrosis)

- pain
- ELEVATED SERUM ENZYME LEVELS
- Inflammation
- loss of function

26

Troponin

troponin levels are tested to confirm heart attack

27

Types of necrosis as related to tissue type

Heart(coagulative)
Brain(liquefactive)
Lung(caseous)
Pancreas(fat)

28

Lipase

levels are checked when abdominal pain is present

29

Tissue Hypoxia

most often caused by ischemia; causes power failure in the cell (mitochondrial death). Disrupts oxygen supply and accumulates metabolic waste
(tissue hypoxia to the whole body is less likely to cause death than hypoxia to a specific area)

30

Ischemia

- a restriction in blood supply to tissue
- cellular events that lead to lactic acidosis (a rise in lactic acid that causes damage to the cell)
- can be reversible up to a point

31

Reperfusion

when a blockage is removed and there is a rush of oxygenated blood to the ischemic area. This causes damage to the cell through calcium overload, formation of free radicals, and inflammation

32

Common causes of malnutrition

poverty
chronic alcoholism
acute/chronic illness
self imposed dietary restrictions
malabsorption syndromes

33

Weight numbers

BMI > 27 = health risk (overweight)
BMI > 30 = obesity

34

Factors of physical and mechanical injury

extreme temps
abrupt changes in atmosphereic pressure
mechanical deformation
electricity
ionizing radiation

35

- emia

coming from or of the blood

36

- tosis

abnormal or diseased condition

37

Somatic Death

death of the entire organism. Results in:
- Rigormortis
- release of lytic enzymes in
body tissues (postmortem
autolysis)
- Brain death

38

Rigor Mortis

presence of stiffened muscles throughout body after death