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Flashcards in Chapter 15 Deck (18):
1

Lymphedema

- occurs when normal flow of the lymphatic system is obstructed or altered in some fashion
- can be primary or secondary
- swelling that typically affects extremities
- if not treated it can cause brawny edema and large deformed libs

2

Primary Lymphedema

- due to congenita (present at birth)l anomaly or dysfunction of the lymphatic system

3

Secondary lymphedema

- associated with a disease process or iatrogenic
- most common cause worldwide is infection by filarial worms
- most common cause in the US is lmphynode removal or radiation

4

Diagnosis and Treatment of Lymphedema

- primary diagnostic test is the injection of radioisotopes ( lymphoscintigram)
- Treatment can be medical ( external compression therapy and exercise) and surgical ( resection of subcutaneous fattty tissue)
- no cure

5

Arterial vs Venous conditions

Arteries - area of high pressure
Veins- area of low pressure

6

Arteriovenous fistulas (AV fistulas)

- abnormal communication between arteries and veins
- most common/serious type is arteriovenous malformation (AVM)

7

Arteriovenous malformation (AVM)

- type of AV fistula
- tangled knot of arteries and veins found most commonly within the brain

8

Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)

- most frequently due to thrombus in a deep vein or th lower extremity
- may be asymptomatic
- treated aggressively with anticoagulation therapy
- type of hypercoagulative state
- previous DVT is a risk factor for further hypercoagulation
- treated with a filter

9

Thrombosis (Hypercoagulative State)

- thrombus: a sationary blood clot formed withing a vessel or chamber of the heart
- causes: blood flow slows dramatically, becomes more turbulent, if there is damage to intimal walls or drugs
- Arterial thrombosis results in ischemia
- Venous thrombosis results in edema
- inflammation with a clot in a vein is called thrombophlebitis

10

Clinical Manefestations of Thrombosis

- arterial: intermittent claudication (pain in legs that is relieved when sitting down) , cool cyanotic (bluish skin tint), painful ulcer around one toe
- venous: none OR life threatening (pulmonary embolism), calf/groin tenderness, swelling, and Homan's sign

11

Treatment of Thrombosis

- once a thrombus has formed, anticoagulant therapy is initiated to prevent clot enlargement
- may need thrombolytic drugs
- additional medical prophylactic interventions include antiembolic stockings or sequential compression devices, ambulation as soon as possible
- another option is surgery

12

Embolus

- Can be called thromboembolus
- material that forms a clot within the bloodstream, traveling clot
- Embolus leaving L ventricle is an ishcemic stroke
- Embolus Leaving R ventricle is pulmonary embolus

13

Ischemic Stroke

- embolus leaving L ventricle
- symptoms differ depending on brain area affected
- loss of cognitive function
- motor changes
- different levels of sensory loss

14

Pulmonary Embolus

- embolus leaving R ventricle
- symptoms are vague and non specific
- sudden onset of shortness of breath
- increased respiratory rate,
- chest pain
- sudden death

15

Compartment Syndrome

- occurs when excessive pressure builds up inside an enclosed space in the body. Compartment syndrome usually results from bleeding or swelling after an injury. The dangerously high pressure in compartment syndrome impedes the flow of blood to and from the affected tissues.

16

Cerebrovascular Accident

- also known as a stroke
- loss in brain function due to a disturbance in blood supply to the brain

17

Transient Ischemic Attack

- similar to a stroke producing similar symptoms, but only lasting a few minutes and causing no permanent damage

18

Homan's Sign

a test for DVT where a positive is pain in the calf on a forceful dorsiflexion of the patient's foot at the ankle while the knee is extended.