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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (27):
1

Homeostasis

- remaining stable while staying the same
- a state in which all systems are in balance
- a state of equilibrium
an ideal set point despite alterations within the body

2

Allostasis

- the ability to successfully adapt to changes
- intricate regulatory processes orchestrated by the brain
- a dynamic process that maintains or reestablishes homeostasis in light of environmental and lifestyle changes

3

Stress

physical, chemical, or emotional factors resulting in tension of body or mind. A real or perceived threat to homeostasis

4

General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)

3 stages
- alarm
- resistance/adaptation
- exhaustion

5

Alarm Stage

fight or flight response due to stressful stimulus
- Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal
(HPA) axis

6

Resistance/adaptation stage

activity of the nervous and endocrine systems in returning the body to homeostasis (allostatic state)

7

Exhaustion

the point where the body can no longer return to homeostasis
(results in allostatic overload)

8

Allostatic overload

cost of the body's organs and tissues for an excessive or ineffectively regulated allostatic response; the effect of wear and tear on the body

9

Stressors

agents or conditions that can produce stress; endanger homeostasis

10

Risk factors

not a stressor, but conditions or situations that increase the likelihood of encountering a stressor

11

Catecholamines

- play an integral role in allostasis
- Sympathetco-adrenal system response mediates the fight or flight response
- Ex: Norepinephrine & epinephrine

12

Norepinehrine

- constricts blood vessels and raises blood pressure.
- Reduces gastric secretion. Increases night and far vision

13

Epinephrine

- Enhances myocardial contractility, increases heart rate, and increases cardiac output.
- Causes bronchodilation
- Increases release of glucose from liver (raises blood glucose levels)

14

Adrenocortical Steroids

- critical to maintenance of homeostasis
- may synergize or antagonize effects of catecholamines
- ex: cortisol and aldosterone

15

Cortisol

- primary glucocorticoid
- affects protein metabolism
- promotes appetite and food seeking behaviors
- has anti inflammatory effects

16

Aldosterone

- primary mineralocorticoid
- promotes reabsorption of sodium and water
- increase blood pressure

17

Endorphins and Enkephalins

Endogenous oipods (the body's natural pain relievers)
- raise pain threshold and
produce sedation and
euphoria

18

Immune Cytokines

- Secreted by macrophages
during stress response
- enhance immune system response
- prolonged stress can suppress immune functioning
- interlukin 1

19

Sex hormones

- affect stress responses influencing allostasis
- may help explain gender responses during stress
- ex: estrogen, testosterone, and dehydroeiandrosterone

20

Growth Hormone

can increase during stress to enhance immune function

21

Prolactin

- similar to structure of growth hormone
- role in immune response

22

Oxytocin

- produced during childbirth and lactation
- associated with bonding and social attachment
- thought to moderate stress response and produce a calming effect

23

Effects of stress response influenced by

genetics
socioeconomic status
prior susceptibilities
preexisting health status
allostatic state
ability to manage stress

24

Adaptation

process of change in response to new or altered circumstances, internal or external in origin

25

Coping

behavioral adaptive response to a stressor using culturally based coping mechanisms

26

distress

perceived inability to cope with a stressor

27

Adaptation methods for stress

Habituation
desensitation
- biofeedback
- visualization
- meditation