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Flashcards in Chapter 17 Deck (15)
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1
Q

Stroke Volume (SV)

A

amount of blood ejected with each contraction of the ventricle (SV = EDV -ESV)

2
Q

End Diastolic Volume (EDV)

A

volume of blood in the ventricle prior to ejection

3
Q

End Systolic Volume (ESV)

A

amount of blood that remains in the ventricle after ejection

4
Q

Ejection Fraction

A

= SV/EDV

normal is 60% to 80%

5
Q

EKG Waveforms

A
  • P wave corresponds to atrial depolarization
  • QRS complex represents ventricular depolarization
  • T wave reflects ventricular repolarization
  • U wave when slow heart rate and low potassium (called hypokalemia)
6
Q

Cardiac Output

A

stroke volume x heart rate

7
Q

Electrocaridiography

A
  • provides graphic illustration of the electrical currents generated by cardiac cells
  • uses electrodes
  • 12 lead ECGs
  • holter monitors
  • Exercise/ stress test
8
Q

!2 lead ECGs

A
  • standard bipolar limb leads I, II, III
  • Unipolar augmented leads aVR, aVL, aVF
  • Unipolar chest leads V 1-6
9
Q

Holter Monitors

A

electrodes on chest and monitors

10
Q

Exercise/stress test

A

stress heart by increasing heart rate and myocardial load

11
Q

MUGA scan

A

gives information regarding movement of heart and ejection fraction

12
Q

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT scan)

A
  • useful for imaging cardiac structures
  • MRI may identify myocardial thickening, pericardial sac disease, valvular structures, congenital malformations
  • MRI with contrast media identifies acute and chronic myocardial infarcts
  • MRI and CT identify coronary plaque burden
13
Q

Echochardiography

A
  • uses reflected sound waves (ultrasound) to provide an image of cardiac structure and motion within the chest
  • useful in diagnosis of heart enlargement valvular disorders, collections of fluid in the pericardial space, cardiac tumors, and abnormalities in left ventricular motion
  • provides estimations of ejection fraction an assessments of ventricular systolic and diastolic function
14
Q

Nuclear Cardiography

A
  • radioactive substances injected into the bloodstream are used to trace the patterns of blood flow in the heart
  • assesses the adequacy of blood flow to cardiac tissues (cold spots: inadequate perfusion)
  • Positron Emission Tomography (PET): evaluate cardiac perfusion and metabolism
15
Q

Cardiac Catheterization/coronary angiography

A
  • catheter passed from the femoral or brachial artery into the aorta to the heart: assesses L side of the heart
  • Catheter passed from the femoral vein to the inferior vena cava to the heart: assesses R side of the heart
  • used to directly measure pressures within cardiac chambers; visualize chamber size, shape, and movement; sample for blood oxygen content in various heart regions; measure CO and ejection fraction; and visualize and manage coronary artery obstructions
  • can be used in conjunction with thrombolytic drugs, laser therapy, stents, and coronary balloon angioplasty