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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (48)
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31

teleosts?

ossified vertebral column
centra bone replaces notochord
spines and ribs are more prominent

32

how do fish swim

via lateral undulations

33

large dorsal lobe with vertebrae; small ventral lobe and example

heterocercal
shark

34

vertebral column center; symmetrical dorsal/ventral lobes and example

diphycercal
lungfish

35

vertebral column at dorsal edge; symmetrical dorsal/ventral lobes and example

homocercal
teleost fish

36

where to fin elements attach

hemal arches

37

two problems with transition to land

air is non-buoyant
respiration in air

38

what is the solution for increased torsion/twist on the vertebral column on land

zygapophyses intervertebral articulations
they will also interlock to suppress torsion

39

what is the solution of increased weight bearing stress on column

reduce number of centra
increase centra mass

40

what is the purpose of increasing the centra mass

reduce flexibility of column
raise capacity to support weight

41

first and second vertebrae in all amniotes

atlas
axis

42

atlas/axis joint allows for

rotation of the head

43

atlas/skull allows for

lift/tilt of head

44

what is the purpose of the fused synsacrum of the bird

study to support flight
fewer muscles to attach which is lighter

45

some thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and caudal fuse

synsacrum

46

in snakes there is increased torsion on the vertebral column, what is the solution

increase the number of zygapophyses to support column

47

in mammals there are highly regionalized vertebral columns, number of cervical, thoracic and lumbar, sacral, and caudal

7
15-20
2-5
varies

48

in many mammals why are the posterior thorax vertebrae without ribs

allows for greater hind limb stride